Record Details

NHER Number:9332
Type of record:Monument
Name:Neolithic flint working and occupation site and multi-period finds

Summary

There have been numerous casual finds of Mesolithic and Neolithic flints on this site. During development of the John Innes Centre several NAU evaluations, monitoring and one excavation have been carried out here. A Neolithic occupation layer with flint scatters representative of flint working (including tools and debitage) and several Neolithic features including a ditch, rectangular structure and a possible cobbled floor surface were excavated. Approximately 28,000 flints were recovered. Several later Roman features were also recorded. Metal detecting between 2000 and 2012 has also uncovered metal finds dating from the Roman to the post medieval periods including Early and Late Saxon brooches and medieval coins. The later medieval and post medieval finds are likely to have accumulated in the topsoil as a result of manuring.

Images

  • A Late Saxon pin from Bunwell  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TG10NE
Parish:COLNEY, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1970. Stray Find.
Found together on ploughed field by [1] at [2] (Context 2):
2 Early Neolithic 'Mildenhall-type' flint laurel leaves.
1 Neolithic flint axehead fragment.
Information from (S1).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 24 March 2014.

1975. Fieldwalking.
Found on John Innes experimental plots - ploughed land and in crops (Context 3):
Large worked flint collection of several thousand pieces, including blades, awls, flakes and microliths, Concentrations over area of c.20 acres. Information from (S1), which describes the assemblage as Mesolithic. It should however be noted that large quantities of earlier Neolithic flint were subsequently recovered at this site, suggesting at least a proportion of this assemblage was probably Neolithic. This uncertainty is not helped by the fact that this material does not appear to have ever been properly identified.
These discoveries are noted in (S13).
E. Rose (NLA). Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 24 March 2014.

NHER 9332/Context 1 [2].
Two circular depressions noted in ploughed field about 1.22m (4 foot) diameter 3.66m (12 foot) apart.

In grounds of John Innes Institute before 1973. Context 4.
Three flint piercers, two flakes, one flake with retouched edge.

Before 1972. On site of Institute. Context 3.
Chipped narrow-butted flint axe (S8), and polished flint axe (S9).
See (S1).

Summer 1999. Metal-detecting.
Two medieval coins.
Roman-post-medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
K. Hinds (NLA), 31 January 2000.

Late 1999. Metal-detecting.
Neolithic fabricator or strike-a-light.
Seventeen medieval to post-medieval metal finds, (S10).
See further descriptions file.
K. Hinds (NLA), 12 July 2000.

January 2000. Trial Trenching.
Revealed ditch containing flints; also Roman sherd in topsoil.
See report (S2) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
E. Rose (NLA), 9 February 2000. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 5 March 2015.

February 2000. Fieldwalking Survey and Trial Trenching. Contexts 25-80.
Revealed flint scatters and Neolithic deposits below colluvium.
See report (S3) and report supplement (S14) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
D. Gurney (NLA), 18 August 2000. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 5 March 2015.

February-March 2000. Watching Brief. Contexts 100-173.
Monitoring of groundworks for new carpark.
A small number of prehistoric features were recorded, struck flints and Roman pottery were recovered.
See report (S4) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
D. Gurney (NLA), 21 August 2000. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 5 March 2015.

August-September 2000. Watching Brief.
Monitoring of groundworks associated with construction of new research facility.
No features were observed but frequent Neolithic and Bronze Age flint tools and debitage were found.
See report (S5) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
D. Gurney (NLA), 26 February 2001.

October-November 2000. Excavation. From context 1000.
Excavation revealed a natural hollow with a brown forest soil overlain by a Neolithic topsoil sealed by a Neolithic occupation layer and contemporary flint knapping waste (28,000 struck flints). Over the occupation layer was a rectangular structure and a possible floor surface.
See published article (S6) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2013.312).
J. Allen (NLA), 28 September 2000. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 17 May 2019.

October-November 2000. Metal-detecting.
One Iron Age, two medieval and two post-medieval coins.
Medieval and post-medieval metal finds.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 22 December 2000.

November-December 2000. Metal-detecting.
Middle Saxon/Late Saxon disc brooch and two post-medieval coin weights. Found very close to NAU excavation.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 12 January 2001.

December 2000/January 2001. Metal-detecting.
Late Saxon imported brooch, (S11).
Post-medieval coin, jetton, token and coin weight.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 17 February 2001.

October/November 2002. Metal-detecting.
Long, narrow, probably Early Neolithic blade-like secondary flint flake, snapped at distal end, with incipient patination.
Identified by P. A. Robins (NCM).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 16 December 2002.

January-February 2003. Metal-detecting.
2 prehistoric flint flakes.
1 medieval coin, 1 pottery sherd, 1 casket hasp, 1 buckle plate (gilt) and 1 three-part strap-end.
2 post-medieval tokens, 1 jetton and 1 button.
Flints identified by P. Robins (NCM), pottery by A. Rogerson (NLA), numismatic items by A. Marsden (NLA) and other objects by S. Ashley (NLA). See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 14 March 2003.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 19 February 2014.

March/April 2003. Metal-detecting.
1 prehistoric flint flake.
1 medieval strap-end.
1 post-medieval lead cloth seal.
Flint identified by P. Robins (NCM) and other objects identified by S. Ashley (NLA). See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 May 2003.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 5 February 2014.

May/June 2003. Metal-detecting.
1 medieval seal matrix.
Identified by S. Ashley (NLA). See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 July 2003.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 19 February 2014.

April/May 2004. Metal-detecting.
5 ?Neolithic retouched flint flakes (extensive retouch/use-ware marks on both lateral edges, ?used as knifes, grey flint, slight patination).
1 Late Saxon pottery sherd (?Thetford-type ).
1 medieval buckle.
Flints identified by P. Robins (NCM), pottery by A. Rogerson (NLA) and other objects by S. Ashley (NLA). See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 June 2004.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 17 March 2014.

June/July 2004. Metal-detecting.
Roman coin.
See list in file.
E. Darch (NLA), 16 August 2004.

November-December 2004. Metal-detecting.
1 Middle-Late Saxon ball-headed pin (S12).
1 post-medieval coin and 1 jetton.
Numismatic items identified by A. Marsden (NLA) and other object by S. Ashley (NLA). See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 14 January 2005.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 19 February 2014.

December 2004/January 2005. Metal-detecting.
4 medieval coins, 1 pottery sherd (glazed, Grimston), 1 thimble, 1 buckle, 1 composite strap end, 1 buckle plate, 2 belt mounts, 1 buckle frame and 1 brooch.
1 medieval/post-medieval pottery sherd.
1 post-medieval coin, 4 lead cloth seals.
1 post-medieval/modern lead ?counter.
Pottery identified by A. Rogerson (NLA), coins by A. Marsden (NLA) and other objects by S. Ashley (NLA). See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 22 February 2005.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 19 February 2014.

January/February 2005. Metal-detecting.
1 medieval coin, 1 brooch, 1 lead ?pilgrim badge fragment.
1 post-medieval lead cloth seal.
Coin identified by A. Marsden (NLA) and other objects by S. Ashley (NLA). See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 11 March 2005.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 19 February 2014.

May-June 2005. Metal-detecting.
2 Roman brooches (1 polden hill, 1 eaqual armed brooch) and 1 wrist clasp.
2 medieval buckle plates and 2 strap ends.
1 medieval/post-medieval sword chape.
1 post-medieval pottery sherd, 1 buckle, 1 belt mount, 1 button and 1 lead powder charge cap/measure.
Pottery identified by A. Rogerson (NLA) and other objects by S. Ashley (NLA). See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 18 July 2005.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 19 February 2014.

July-August 2005. Metal-detecting.
One Roman coin.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 18 September 2005.

January-February 2006. Metal-detecting.
One medieval coin.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 19 March 2006.

The Secondary File for NHER 9332 contains a drawing of a Late Saxon disc brooch (S15) that was apparently found here in 2006. There is however no other information on this find (at least in the file for this record).
P. Watkins (HES), 23 March 2021.

August-September 2007. Metal-detecting.
1 post-medieval scabbard chape.
Identified by S. Ashley (NLA). See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 12 October 2007.
Updated by J. Page (HES), 17 March 2014.

February-March 2012. Metal-detecting.
Late Saxon disc brooch.
See description in file.
S. Ashley (HES), 23 April 2012.

March-April 2014. Watching Brief.
Monitoring of excavation of trench for new IT cable at southern edge of site.
No archaeologically-significant features or deposits were recorded and no finds were recovered.
See report (S16) for further details.
P. Watkins (HES), 23 March 2021.

Monument Types

  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • POST HOLE (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DITCH (Upper Palaeolithic - 40000 BC to 10001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FLINT SCATTER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GULLY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BUTTON (Undated)
  • NAIL (Undated)
  • QUERN (Undated)
  • RING (Undated)
  • BLADE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BURNT FLINT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • AWL (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 2351 BC)
  • BLADE (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 2351 BC)
  • MICROLITH? (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • ANVIL (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BLADE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BORER (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • CORE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FABRICATOR (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • HAMMERSTONE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LAUREL LEAF (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • STRIKE A LIGHT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BORER (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • SLEEVE CLASP (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BROOCH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BRICK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • EWER (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • JETTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PADLOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PILGRIM BADGE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL MATRIX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SKILLET (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP END (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BELL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLOTH SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLOTH SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • EWER (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POWDER MEASURE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SKILLET (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOY (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • VESSEL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Serial: 1970. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1970. No 17. p 5.
---Serial: 1973. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1973. No 20. p 7.
---Unpublished Document: NAU. 2001. NAU Watching Brief Report.. Norfolk Archaeological Unit.
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Photograph: NCC Find Identification and Recording Service. c. 1975-2000. HES Find Polaroid Collection. HES Find Polaroid Collection. polaroid. black and white.
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TG 10 NE 50; TG 10 NE 52; TG 10 NE 53; TG 10 NE 54.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Colney.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Fiche: Exists.
---Unpublished Contractor Report: Whitmore, D. 2001. Assessment Report and Updated Project Design, John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Colney. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 576.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Miscellaneous. Colney.
<S1>Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Colney [3].
<S2>Unpublished Contractor Report: Penn, K. 2000. Report on an Archaeological Evaluation at The John Innes Centre Colney Lane, Colney, Norwich. Phase 1. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 479.
<S3>Unpublished Contractor Report: Adams, D. 2000. Report on an Archaeological Evaluation at the John Innes Centre Colney, Colney Lane, Norwich. Phase 2. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 483.
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Nokkert, M. 2000. Report on an Archaeological Watching Brief at The John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Colney, Norwich. Phase 1. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 489.
<S5>Unpublished Contractor Report: Green, F. M. L. 2001. Report on an Archaeological Watching Brief at The John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Colney, Norwich. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 553.
<S6>Article in Serial: Whitmore, M. 2004. Excavations at a Neolithic Site at the John Innes Centre, Colney, 2000. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt III 406-431.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2001. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2000. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt IV pp 707-728. p 711.
<S8>Illustration: Clough, T.. 1972. Drawing of a Neolithic polished flint axe.. Card. 1:1.
<S9>Illustration: Clough, T.. 1972. Drawing of a Neolithic chipped narrow-butted flint axe.. Card. 1:1.
<S10>Illustration: Ashley, S.. 1999. Drawing of a medoeval horse harness mount.. Film. 2:1.
<S11>Illustration: Holness, A.. 2001. Drawing of a Late Saxon copper alloy convex disc brooch.. Film. 2:1.
<S12>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2004. Drawing of a Late Saxon gilt copper alloy pin.. Film. 2:1.
<S13>Serial: 1975. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1975. No 22. p 5.
<S14>Unpublished Contractor Report: Green, F. M. L. 2000. Environmental (Pollen) Assessment. John Innes Centre, Colney Lane, Colney, Norwich. Norfolk Archaeological Unit.
<S15>Illustration: Gibbons, J.. 2010. Drawing of a Late Saxon disc brooch. Film. 2:1.
<S16>Unpublished Contractor Report: Fish, J. 2015. Norwich Research Park, IT Cable Route, Phase 1b, Colney, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7UG. Archaeological monitoring. NPS Archaeology. 2015/1332.

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