Record Details

NHER Number:42135
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of possible Iron Age field systems and enclosure

Summary

The cropmarks of a possible Iron Age field system and enclosure are visible on aerial photographs within arable surrounding the Manor House and Manor House Farm, Ingham. These fragmentary ditched features are located to the immediate east of a possible Iron Age to Roman date farmstead and associated enclosures (NHER 38572), however the alignment is not the same, indicating that they are likely to be of a different date, possibly earlier.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 40185 26463
Map Sheet:TG42NW
Parish:INGHAM, NORTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

September 2005. Norfolk NMP.
The cropmarks of a possible Iron Age field system and enclosure are visible on aerial photographs within arable surrounding the Manor House and Manor House Farm, Ingham (S1)-(S3). The site is centred on TG 4019 2647. These fragmentary ditched features are located to the immediate east of a possible Iron Age to Roman date farmstead and associated enclosures (NHER 38572), however the alignment is not the same. Some linear ditches of the same alignment as this field system were suggested as being medieval in date. However this fragmentary field system does not display characteristics normally associated with medieval fields. The field size, arrangement, orientation and subdivision of features are traits more commonly associated with the Iron Age to Roman periods. It is possible that these fields and the enclosure, possibly a farmstead, may be Iron Age in date and pre-date the development of the more rectilinear and nucleated farmstead site to the immediate west, NHER 38572.

One of the enclosed areas or fields to the north of the site, centred on TG 4012 2675, is much more heavily sub-divided than the rest of the site. It is possible that this represents an enclosure or farmstead (S3). The cropmarks are quite fragmentary, but an incomplete rectilinear enclosure may be visible, measuring 110m by at least 70m. Internal ditches subdivide this larger area into several small enclosures, all measuring approximately 30m by 20m. A double ditched linear feature leading into the enclosure may represent an entrance.

The southern part of the site is less well organised, although the same general orientation of the axial ditches is the same; roughly running southwest to northeast. Ditches perpendicular to these divide the land into roughly rectangular areas. The system is too fragmentary to provide a clear idea of field size, although the majority of the main southwest to northeast ditches are approximately 80m apart.

Not all the ditches follow this general alignment and probably represent other phases of the site. Comparison with other cropmark sites to the immediate east, such as NHER 38572, display a similar multi-phase nature, with ditches interpreted as dating from the Iron Age to medieval identified.

The location of these cropmarks closely follows the area of the loamy and sandy soils that cover Ingham. Other cropmarks were identified to north of the site, although were not mapped due to their located within the former alluvial fen areas adjacent to this loamy well-drained area. It is therefore possible that these features are the margins of the site are associated with drainage. Many of the cropmarks on the CUCAP 1973 verticals (S3) were quite faint and were in close association with obviously agricultural marks. This made the accurate identification of the archaeology quite hard in places. Also the run of photographs also has several misleading 'marks' which have the appearance of cropmarks in stereo but the feature is often not clearly visible in both frames. Therefore some of the cropmarks mapped may not be of definite archaeological origin.
S. Massey (NMP), 30 September 2005.

Monument Types

  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • FARMSTEAD? (Unknown date)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Unknown date)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Unknown date)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD?)
  • ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD?)
  • FARMSTEAD? (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD?)
  • FIELD BOUNDARY (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD?)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD?)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD?)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

<S1>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1634 5096-7 09-JUL-1946 (NMR).
<S2>Vertical Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1973. CUCAP RC8AK 216-7 08-JUN-1973.
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: BKS. 1988. BKS 0811-2 11-AUG-1988 (NCC 3906-7).

Related records - none

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