Record Details

NHER Number:38747
Type of record:Monument
Name:World War Two coastal defences


World War Two coastal defences including an anti tank ditch, anti tank cubes and pillboxes are visible on aerial photographs. They are located along the coast between Happisburgh and Eccles.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TG 39956 29834
Map Sheet:TG32NE

Full description

August 2004. Norfolk NMP.
World War Two coastal defences are visible on aerial photographs ((S1) to (S3)). An anti tank ditch is visible on 1946 aerial photographs extending for 370m along the southwest side of the dunes between TG 3985 2992 and TG 4013 2968 (S1). It turns towards the beach at both ends. An intermittent bank is present along most of the seaward (northeast) side and part of the southwest side. This ditch was constructed after 19 September 1940 as it is not shown on aerial photographs of that date (S2). A line of nineteen concrete anti tank cubes continued the defence from the northwest end of the ditch, blocking the end of Cart Gap Road. These cubes were in place by September 1940 (S2). A hexagonal pillbox, probably a Type 22, was located at TG 39975 29845 and is visible on 1940 and 1946 aerial photographs ((S1) to (S2)). A small rectangular concrete structure is visible at TG 39795 29990 in 1946, which may be a small pillbox or other unidentified building (S1). Remains of another pillbox or possible searchlight are present on the beach 15m further north at TG 39790 33000 in 1952 (S3). It appears that this structure was originally located 7m further west on the clifftop in 1946. A circular earthwork, 12m in diameter, is visible at TG 39790 29915 on 1940 and 1946 aerial photographs ((S1) to (S2)). It is possible that this relates to an anti aircraft gun position. Three possible sub-rectangular weapons pits, measuring up to 5m by 2m each, are located around TG 39900 29815 (S1).
J. Albone (NMP), 20 August 2004.

April 2005. Norfolk NMP.
An additional pillbox and a small square structure are possibly visible on aerial photographs from 1952 (S4). The pillbox is located at TG 4002 2980, where only the front half is visible sticking out of the dunes. Due to its partially obscured position it is hard to identify the exact type of pillbox. Although from the portion exposed it would appear to be a type 24, as it is less hexagonal and slightly larger than the type 22 visible on the same photograph, described above. To the north of this on the beach is a small square structure, possibly concrete, projecting out of the sand, located at TG 4001 2983 and measuring 2m across. As it is 1952, it is entirely possible that the structure is post-1945 and not military in origin. However it is also possible that it is a component of the World War Two defences that has eroded out of the dunes.
S. Massey (NMP), 18 April 2005.

Monument Types

  • PIT (Early 20th Century to 21st Century - 1901 AD to 2100 AD)
  • ANTI AIRCRAFT BATTERY (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)
  • DEFENCE OBSTRUCTION (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)
  • PILLBOX (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)
  • SEARCHLIGHT BATTERY (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)
  • STRUCTURE (World War Two to 21st Century - 1939 AD to 2100 AD)
  • TANK TRAP (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)
  • WEAPONS PIT (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

<S1>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1634 1093 09-JUL-1946 (Norfolk SMR TG 3930B).
<S2>Oblique Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1940. NMR TG 3929/7 (MSO 31022 26/BR14/15 4857) 19-SEP-1940.
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1952. RAF 540/690 5048-9 11-MAR-1952 (NMR).
<S4>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1952. RAF 540/690 5046-7 11-MAR-1952 (NMR).

Related records - none

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