Record Details

NHER Number:26670
Type of record:Monument
Name:Post medieval sea defences


Post medieval banks supported by wooden posts are visible on early 19th century maps and on aerial photographs of this area.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TF 8197 4433
Map Sheet:TF84SW

Full description

January 2001. Norfolk NMP.
A section of linear earthwork bank is visible on 1945 aerial photography (S1), running for approximately 5km east to west, between TF 801 444 and TF 848 452. A further 2km section of bank running north to south between TF 835 451 and TF 835 434 can also be seen. The feature is also in evidence on 1946 aerial photography (S2 and S3). Most of the bank feature is depicted on an 1825 enclosure map (S4), with the exception of the far eastern end, and the far southern end of the north to south section. The bank is similarly shown, although slightly less accurately on Bryant's map of 1826 (S5). The bank also appears on 1st and 2nd edition OS maps (S6 and S7), although again, its easternmost end is not shown. The bank forms a boundary between the coastal salt marsh and areas of reclaimed/cultivated land. The feature is therefore a form of sea defence, protecting the land south of the bank. The same is true of the north to south section of the bank, which would have beeen protecting land to the west from the channels coming inland from the sea. The defences are post medieval in date, as they were being depicted on maps by at least 1825.
A. Hunt (Suffolk CC NMP), 30 January 2001.

May 2002. Norfolk NMP.
The eastern most sections of bank, from TF 83250 4520, are now a separate site, recorded as NHER 26666, as the map evidence of the 1822 plan of the Burnham Salt Marshes (S8) indicates that these banks are earlier than the main stretch of bank.
S. Massey (NMP), 8 May 2002.

May-November 2004. Norfolk Rapid Coastal Zone Archaeological Survey.
Inter-tidal survey (Environmental Zone 8), Context 756:
A row of forty posts aligned east to west was located between TF 81677 45181 and TF 81755 45168. It was seen in a saltmarsh channel, just to the north side of a modern sea bank. It is probably part of the internal structure for an earlier bank, possibly one located here and illustrated in maps dating to 1822 and 1825 (S9).
Context 758:
Numerous upright timber posts and large patches of horizontally laid wattling were recorded eroding out of the bank of a saltmarsh channel between TF 81835 45161 and TF 81933 45139. Located just south of the modern sea bank, the timbers probably form part of the internal structure of an earlier sea bank. They could be part of the bank visible on maps dating to 1822 and 1825 (S9) and located at the site.
See assessment report (S10) for further details.
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2017.421).
J. Allen (NLA), 16 April 2005. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 21 July 2019.

Monument Types

  • SEA DEFENCES (Post Medieval to 21st Century - 1540 AD to 2100 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

<S1>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1945. RAF 106G/UK 403 Frames 3079-3083 18-JUN-1945 (NMR).
<S2>Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1430 Frames 4099, 4103 & 4098 16-APR-1946.
<S3>Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK 1571 Frames 3018-3020 & 4027.
<S4>Map: 1825. Burnham Deepdale and Norton Enclosure Map 1825 (NRO 21125 179x4).
<S5>Map: Bryant, A.. 1826. Bryant's Map of Norfolk.
<S6>Map: Ordnance Survey. OS 1st Edition 1" 508.
<S7>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1906. OS 2nd Edition 25" 1906 Sheets II.15 & II.16.
<S8>Map: Blackett, T.O.. 1822. Plan of Burnham Marshes.
<S9>Unpublished Document: Ringwood, I.. 2003. NSCS 3 - Norfolk and Suffolk Coastal Survey - Documentary Evidence - Norfolk.
<S10>Unpublished Contractor Report: Robertson, D., Crawley, P., Barker, A., and Whitmore, S. 2005. Norfolk Rapid Coastal Zone Archaeological Survey. Assessment Report and Updated Project Design. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 1045.

Related records - none

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