Record Details

NHER Number:35843
Type of record:Monument
Name:Extensive Roman remains and evidence for prehistoric, post-medieval and WWII era activity

Summary

Archaeological work undertaken at this site between 2001 and 2004 recovered considerable evidence for Roman period activity. There was also evidence for limited prehistoric activity on the site, as well as post-medieval remains and features potentially associated with its use as a military camp during the Second World War (NHER 27511).
The majority of the archaeologically significant features were identified during an evaluation and subsequent excavation undertaken in 2001. Evidence for pre-Roman activity included Mesolithic/Early Neolithic flints, a group of pits/postholes of Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age date and a Bronze Age pit. A wide range of Roman features were uncovered, including ditches post-holes, possible sill beam slots, flues, a well and several kilns/ovens. The lack of Saxon or medieval evidence suggested the site was largely abandoned during these periods. A number of pits appeared to be related to activity during the Second World War.
An additional evaluation trench excavated in 2002 revealed additional Roman ditches and pits and a post-medieval pits. A Watching Brief subsequently undertaken at the same location identified further evidence of probable Roman date, as well as structural remains and features likely to have been associated with a former malthouse.
In 2004 a watching brief in the south-west corner of the site identified an undated gully, a Roman pit and a post-medieval ditch at this site. An infilled pond was possibly associated with the area's former use as a military camp and holiday site.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 5203 1215
Map Sheet:TG51SW
Parish:CAISTER ON SEA, GREAT YARMOUTH, NORFOLK

Full description

January 2001. Trial Trenching.
Revealed residual flints.
Bronze Age pit.
Considerable evidence for Roman period activity including ditches, postholes and possible sill beam slots, flues, a well, and a colluvial deposit which was sampled and dated by Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). Roman activity here starts in mid to late 2nd century.
See report (S1) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S2).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2016.304).
D. Gurney (NLA), 19 April 2001. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 23 June 2019.

May-July and September-October 2001. Excavation. Contexts 188-1133.
The earliest archaeological evidence comprised two flint cores of possible Mesolithic to Early Neolithic date. However the most significant prehistoric remains was a group of pits or postholes of Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age date. A total of nine pits/postholes were identified, perhaps defining a building.
Features and finds of Roman date include 1st century pottery and rectilinear enclosures and ovens or kilns, and evidence of cattle butchery.
The lack of Saxon or medieval finds or features indicates abandonment of the site during these times.
The final phase of dateable activity at the site comprised pits relating to the military use of the holiday camp at the site during World War Two.
See report (S3) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S2).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2016.304).
J. Allen (NLA), 17 February 2007. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 21 April 2015 and 23 June 2019.

November 2002. Trial Trench.
Evaluation of site of proposed extension to leisure centre. Contexts 1-31.
Roman ditches and pits were identified, from which pottery, tile and a small quantity of animal bone was recovered.
A pit of possible post-medieval date was identified and post-medieval artefacts were recovered from the subsoil layers.
See report (S4) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S5).
Previously recorded under NHER 37421.
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2006.293).
J. Allen (NLA). Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 May 2015 and 5 May 2019.

March 2003. Watching Brief.
Monitoring of foundation trenches for new sports and leisure complex. Contexts 32-73.
Revealed a sequence of undated, Roman and post medieval deposits.
Undated remains include a number of pits and a post hole and are possibly contemporary with three Roman pits recorded at the site.
A post-medieval subsoil, pits and wall remains, associated with a former malthouse at the site were also encountered.
Finds include Roman and later pottery sherds, brick, tile, clinker and mortar.
See report (S6) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7) and (S8).
Previously recorded under NHER 37421.
J. Allen (NLA), 26 June 2007. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 May 2015.

July 2004. Watching Brief.
Monitoring of groundworks associated with residential development in south-west corner of site. Contexts 1-22.
Revealed an undated gully, a Roman pit and a post medieval ditch. An infilled pond was identified which perhaps was associated with the area's former use as a military camp and holiday site.
See report (S9) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S10).
Previously recorded as NHER 40651.
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2007.177).
J. Allen (NLA), 8 June 2007. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 May 2015 and 5 May 2019.

Note that the well has been preserved in situ.
D. Gurney (NLA), 9 June 2005.

Monument Types

  • GULLY (Unknown date)
  • HEARTH (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • POST HOLE (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • STRUCTURE (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • OVEN? (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • BUILDING (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PIT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POST HOLE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Bronze Age to Middle Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1001 BC)
  • PIT (Early Bronze Age to Middle Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age - 1000 BC to 401 BC)
  • BUTCHERY SITE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DRAINAGE DITCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GULLY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HEARTH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • OVEN? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHAFT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHAFT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WELL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DITCH (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POND (Early 20th Century to 21st Century - 1901 AD? to 2100 AD?)
  • DITCH (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)
  • PIT (World War Two - 1939 AD to 1945 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Undated)
  • CHARCOAL (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Undated)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Unknown date)
  • SAMPLE (Unknown date)
  • SLAG (Unknown date)
  • XFIRED CLAY (Unknown date)
  • BLADE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BORER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BURNT FLINT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • KNIFE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POLISHER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SAMPLE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • XFIRED CLAY (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE CORE (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • CORE (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • WEIGHT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POLISHER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • SIDE SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • THUMB NAIL SCRAPER (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Early Bronze Age to Middle Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1001 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Middle Bronze Age - 1600 BC to 1001 BC)
  • POT (Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age - 1000 BC to 401 BC)
  • POT (Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age - 1000 BC to 401 BC)
  • AMPHORA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BEAKER (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BLADE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BODKIN? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • BOTTLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOWL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRIQUETAGE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • CHEESE PRESS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (CONTEMPORARY IMITATION) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DISH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLAGON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HANDLE (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • IMBREX (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • JAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MORTARIUM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NEEDLE? (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PLANT REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SAMPLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHEET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPIKE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEGULA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WINDOW GLASS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • XFIRED CLAY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BODKIN? (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HANDLE (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • NEEDLE? (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TILE (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • BELL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOTTLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PANTILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STUD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Unpublished Contractor Report: Albone, J. 2001. Archaeological Evaluation at land south of Norwich Road, Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk. Archaeological Project Services. 031/01.
<S2>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2002. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2001. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt I pp 162-177. p 164.
<S3>Unpublished Contractor Report: Albone, J. 2006. Archaeological Excavation on land off Norwich Road, Caister on Sea, Norfolk. Archaeological Project Services. 108/03.
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Albone, J. 2003. Archaeological Evaluation at the Old Hall Hotel, Caister on Sea, Norfolk. Archaeological Project Services. 232/02.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2003. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2002. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt II pp 368-384. p 370.
<S6>Unpublished Contractor Report: Cope-Faulkner, P. 2003. Archaeological Watching Brief at the Old Hall Hotel, Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk. Archaeological Project Services. 109/03.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2004. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2003. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt III pp 573-588. p 575.
<S8>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 2007. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2006. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt II pp 261-273. p 262.
<S9>Unpublished Contractor Report: Hall, R. V. 2005. Archaeological Monitoring at Caister Old Hall, Caister-on-Sea, Norfolk. Archaeological Project Services. 06/05.
<S10>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 125.

Related records - none

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