Record Details

NHER Number:31157
Type of record:Monument
Name:Post medieval water meadows

Summary

This extremely well-preserved area of post medieval floated water meadow earthworks comprises banks and ditches either side of a diagonal main water carrier. Several of the original brick culverts still remain. The meadows were constructed post 1792 by Payne Galway of the West Tofts estate. Their creation was part a larger region wide trend for reclamation and landscape improvement schemes carried out by large estates.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TL 83 93
Map Sheet:TL89SW
Parish:LYNFORD, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

January/February 1995.
Post medieval floated water meadows, well-preserved.

1946. RAF aerial photograph.
Site shows as earthworks.

1971. Ordnance Survey aerial photograph.
Site shows as earthworks - west half less clear.

1989. Norfolk County Council aerial photograph.
Site shows as earthworks in east - west half ploughed.

1995.
Transfer of detail from aerial photographs to 1:2500 map.
No ground verification.
See plan (S1) and discussion of site in (S2).
D. Gurney (NLA), 8 February 1995.

Extremely well preserved area of post medieval floated water meadow earthworks, comprising banks and ditches either side of diagonal main water carrier. Several original brick culverts still remain. Constructed post 1792 by Payne Galway of the West Tofts estate, employing Mr Brooks who also worked on the Riddlesworth water meadows.
See report (S3) for further details. This site was also noted in (S4).
K. Sussams (NLA), 2 June 1995.

2000.
Field inspection has slightly amended a published plan which has been compiled from aerial photgraphs. A few additional channels have been recorded in the surviving eastern section.
This work is noted in (S5).
D. Holburn (HES), 14 November 2011.

September 2002. DEFRA site visit.
See (S6).
E. Rose (NLA), 11 February 2002.

2000-2002. Woodland Earthwork Rapid Identification Survey.
Management Unit M Site 145:
Water meadows not re-examined as already mapped.
See report (S7).
These earthworks were subsequently discussed in both (S8) and (S9).
P. Watkins (HES), 12 May 2015.

Monument Types

  • WATER MEADOW (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WATERCOURSE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TL 89/TL 8393/A, 71 386 550.
---Photograph: JJE.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Illustration: BRC. 1995. West Tofts Water Meadows.
<S2>Article in Serial: Wade-Martins, S. and Williamson, T. 1994. Floated water-meadows in Norfolk: a misplaced innovation?. Agricultural History Review. Vol 42 Pt 1 pp 20-37.
<S3>Unpublished Report: Sussums, K. 1995. West Tofts: Floated Water Meadows.
<S4>Publication: Sussams, K.. 1996. The Breckland Archaeological Survey. p 218; Fig 37b.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2001. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2000. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt IV pp 707-728. p 716.
<S6>Unpublished Document: Hooke, D. (DEFRA). 2002. DEFRA site visit report and photographs. 218, fig. 37b.
<S7>Unpublished Contractor Report: Cushion, B. 2002. STANTA ILMP Woodland Earthwork Rapid Identification Survey. Brian Cushion Archaeological & Cartographical Surveyor.
<S8>Monograph: Cushion, B. and Davison, A. 2003. Earthworks of Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 104. p 198.
<S9>Article in Serial: Davison, A. and Cushion, B. 2005. An Archaeological Survey of the Stanford Training Area, 2000-2. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt IV pp 602-616. p 613.

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