Record Details

NHER Number:29587
Type of record:Monument
Name:Kelling Hall, enclosure and trackway


Earthworks of a probable medieval date associated with the manorial site of Kelling Hall (NHER 6230). The site consists of a series of banks, terraces and a possible hollow way, running alongside a steep valley. Earthwork survey and aerial photography have revealed an enclosure within the floor of this valley. It is also suggested that earthworks following the contour of the valley mark the line of the old road, as depicted on Faden's map of 1797.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TG 0927 4169
Map Sheet:TG04SE

Full description

East of the moat site (NHER 6230), a U-shaped banked enclosure encompasses a level area, dropping by about 0.3m at the west end to the moat site level, and which is bisected by an existing drain. The bank is well defined on the south, being up to 1m high above the centre, with a 0.4m drop to the south. Three old oak trees are on the northern alignment. A depression to the south of the enclosure looks like a hollow way but a higher level continuous terraced trackway is a much more convincing alignment of a road shown on Fadens Map.
One unglazed early medieval body sherd noted on drain side.
Identified by A. Rogerson (NLA).
B. Cushion (NLA), February 1993.

1995. Earthwork Survey.
Survey at 1:1000.
See report (S4) for further details and copy of plan (S5). The results of this survey are also summarised in (S6).
B. Cushion (NLA), November 1995. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 31 March 2015.

9 December 2003. Visit.
Under pasture, grazed by cattle in the summer months, subject of a Countryside Stewardship Agreement.
H. Paterson (A&E), 5 January 2003.

March 2004, Norfolk NMP.
(This site has been extended by the NMP mapping to the west and therefore the central grid reference altered from TG 0941 4170 to TG 0929 4167).
Earthworks of a probable medieval date associated with the manorial site of Kelling Hall (NHER 6230). The site consists of a series of banks, terraces and a possible hollow way, running alongside a steep valley, which are visible on aerial photographs (S1-3). This site has already received ground survey by Brian Cushion (NF51166) (see secondary file) and this revealed much detail that is not visible on the aerial photographs, in particular where there is tree coverage. Sections of the previously recorded U-shaped enclosure in the valley bottom were visible. Two additional linears can be seen on the aerial photographs, consisting of two low banks. One of these appears to be on a similar alignment with the enclosure. Two additional linear ditches were also located on the valley floor, centred on TG 0952 4169. These appear to be part of the drainage features and may well be later, possible post-medieval.
One earthwork that does not appear to have been picked up on the ground is a curvilinear bank almost running along the contour on the north side of the valley. This is approximately 115m long and up to 8m wide and is flanked by slight ditches on either side. To the north east of this was an L-shaped section of ditch, possibly the corner of an enclosure or field, very little can be seen of this feature so it is hard to interpret it fully.
On the southern side of the valley are a series of terraced bank and ditch earthworks, which may make more sense on the ground, as from the air it was hard to distinguish the man-made from the natural. However one feature was clear, particularly on the RAF aerial photographs and OS aerial photographs (S1-2). A hollow way type sunken trackway is visible running along the contour from TG 0933 4168 to TG 0950 4168. This is up to 8m wide in places. This appears to correspond with the probable road route identified by Brian Cushion's survey and the road depicted on Faden's map of 1797 (S4). The continuing line of the road to the east cannot be identified as earthworks as the area has been ploughed heavily.
On the 1946 aerial photographs (S1) possible further elements of this site may have existed as low earthworks, now ploughed. These consist of another hollow way type feature, 80m long and 8m wide. This is on a similar alignment to the comparable earthwork to the east. To the north of this a possible low bank, abutting the boundary. To the south of these is a line of four sections of low bank, all in alignment from TG 0928 4166 to TG 0900 4163. These are flanked by ditches in placed. The light on the 1946 images is not particularly good for seeing low earthworks, so it is possible that further earthworks exist. However it is possible that these earthworks relate to the former line of the road, although admittedly they do not follow the route suggested by Faden's map.
S. Massey (NMP) 05 March 2004

Management statement signed 10 February 2004.
Copy in file.
H. Paterson (A&E), 12 February 2004.

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • GARDEN FEATURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROAD (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

---Article in Serial: Dollin, B. W. and Carruthers, B. 1997. Excavations at Kelling Old Hall. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt IV pp 453-467.
---Publication: Faden, W. and Barringer, J. C. 1989. Faden's Map of Norfolk in 1797.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK 1571 4224-5 07-JUN-1946 (Norfolk SMR TG 0941A-B).
<S2>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1969. OS/69037 043-4 03-APR-1969.
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: BKS. 1988. BKS 8385-6 27-MAY-1988 (NCC 0934-5).
<S4>Unpublished Report: Cushion, B. 1995. Kelling SMR29587. Earthwork Survey Report.
<S5>Illustration: Cushion, B. 1995. Plan of earthworks at Kelling SMR 29587. Film. 1:1000.
<S6>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1996. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1995. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt III pp 397-412. p 402.

Related records - none

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