Record Details

NHER Number:2810
Type of record:Monument
Name:Earthworks of the shrunken medieval settlement of Hoe


A medieval deserted or shrunken settlement survives as earthworks. The earthworks include a moat, hollow ways, enclosures, probable tofts and a possible windmill mound. Undated fired clay and a 17th century horseshoe have been collected.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TF 9974 1664
Map Sheet:TF91NE

Full description

An earthwork site located north and east of Hoe Hall (NHER 2832) and St Andrew's Church (NHER 2833). Possibly the remains of a deserted village with a moat and hollow way.

1966. Field Observation.
Mounds and ditches were observed, including a possible moat at TF 9951 1689. A burnt area was seen on the west side of a long mound and a 17th century horseshoe was recovered from a patch of clay that may have been a floor.
See notes in secondary file.
E. Rose (NAU), 2 October 1990.

November 1978. Field Observation.
The majority of this earthwork site is located in the park of Hoe Hall, under grass. A deep hollow way begins east of the hall, where there is evidence of trees that have been cut down. This hollow way runs north and then abruptly east at a point where a pond is marked on Ordnance Survey map (S15), joining the northern field boundary and fading into a ditch. A second hollow way was observed running east from the pond and several earthworks were noted in this area that could represent house platforms. The long mound noted in 1966 is is a large atrificial headland with large hollows to the south. Several winding depressions were located between this feature and the road as well as to the south where they disappear under a walled garden. To the northwest a third hollow way runs north towards the next field. The moat is well preserved, creating a well embanked islands with deep dry ditches.
See notes in secondary file.
H. Hamilton (NLA), 11 December 2007.

The moat measures 30m north to south by 16m east to west. The island stands 0.7m above the surrounding dry ditch which itself has a maximum depth of 0.4m below the surrounding ground level.
Information from (S1).
R. J. Rickett (NAU), 7 August 1990.

June 1993. Field Observation.
The earthworks are all under healthy pasture, grazed by cattle/horses.
H. Paterson (NLA), 6 October 1994.

12 July 1994. NLA aerial photography.
The earthwork of the moat is visible in these aerial photographs.
See (S3).
H. Clare (NLA), 22 February 2001.

1995. Earthwork Survey.
The earthworks were mapped at 1:1000 and a description (S2) was produced. The survey noted a strip of earthworks parallel to Hall Road, north of the hall and church, that included a series of small sub-rectangular enclosures which are likely tofts and one small moated enclosure. Larger ditched and banked enclosures were located east of the hall, as well as a north-south depression that may represent a former road as well as a hollow way passing between the hall and church. A mill mound was also recorded.
See report (S2) for plan and further details. This site was included in (S10) and the survey is also noted in (S17).
B. Cushion (NLA), December 1995.

25 June 1996. NLA aerial photography.
The moat earthworks are visible in these photographs.
See (S4).
H. Clare (NLA), 23 August 2001.

1998. Field Observation.
Both the moated site and the earthworks near the Hall are under excellent pasture, grazed by cattle/horses.
H. Paterson (NLA), 9 March 1998.

November 2007. Norfolk NMP.
Earthworks relating to the shrunken medieval settlement of Hoe, including moats and hollow ways, are visible on aerial photographs ((S3)-(S9)). These earthworks can be divided into two adjoining groups for the purposes of this record. They have all been subject to a ground survey (S10). The main group of earthworks lies to the north and east of St Andrew's Church (NHER 2833) and Hoe Hall (NHER 2832) in the area of parkland associated with the hall. To the southeast of the hall is an earthwork of a hollow way that extends from the southeast corner of the site and aligns with the boundary between the hall and the churchyard. A road is shown on this route, passing between the church and hall, on the 1814 Hoe enclosure map (S11) and it is clear that the hollow way relates to this medieval thoroughfare. Bryant’s county map of 1826 (S12) also shows the road on this course, but it had been moved to its present position, to the south of the church, by the time of the Hoe tithe map in 1847 (S13). A second hollow way leads north from the former route of this road in the park. This possible former road is not shown on the available maps including Faden’s 1797 county map (S14) and was presumably out of use by that date. It curves towards the northeast at its northern end and is flanked by enclosures along its length. These were rectilinear in plan and ranged in size from 52m by 12m to 168m by 124m. Some of the boundaries survived and were shown on the 1814 enclosure map (S11), but most had been removed by that date.
To the north of the hall, fronting on to Hall Road, are several earthwork enclosures. Two of these, which are set back from the road, are moats with raised internal platforms. These two enclosures are adjoining and are both defined by 5m wide ditches. They have internal dimensions of 34m by 24m and 30m by 28m. A third smaller enclosure is attached to the southern side of these moats. Several large pond-like earthworks, or possibly former gravel pits, are present within the parkland area.
The second group of earthworks lies further to the northwest along Hall Road. These include a further rectangular moat, with internal dimensions of 30m by 21m. To its west is an incomplete enclosure of similar dimensions that may also be a moat. Both of these enclosures are cut by later drainage ditches. Earthworks of other ditches and ponds are present in this area.
These two groups of earthworks relate to the shrunken settlement of Hoe and are likely to date mainly from the medieval and early post medieval periods. Although they have previously been surveyed (S10), the NMP mapping of adjacent areas of cropmarks (NHER 50696) has placed the site in a wider context.
Also see (S16)
J. Albone (NMP), 19 November 2007.

Before 28 May 2008. Metal detecting.
1 Middle Saxon and 1 medieval pottery sherd; medieval, medieval/post-medieval and post-medieval metal objects.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 31 July 2008.

Monument Types

  • CROFT (Undated)
  • HEARTH (Unknown date)
  • DESERTED SETTLEMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DRAINAGE DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOUSE PLATFORM (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOAT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOUND (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POND (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOFT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WINDMILL MOUND (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WINDMILL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BRIQUETAGE (Undated)
  • XFIRED CLAY (Unknown date)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PURSE (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP END (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HORSESHOE (16th Century to 17th Century - 1600 AD to 1700 AD)

Protected Status

  • Management Statement
  • Management Statement
  • Management Statement
  • Management Statement

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Miscellaneous. Hoe.
<S1>Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 91 NE 22 [2].
<S2>Unpublished Report: Cushion, B. 1995. Hoe SMR2810. Earthwork Survey Report.
<S3>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1994. NHER TF 9916AG-AJ (NLA 342/HGQ2-3,6) 12-JUL-1994.
<S4>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. NHER TF 9916AW-AY (NLA 363/HBZ1-3) 25-JUN-1996.
<S5>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1977. NHER TF 9916A-C (NLA 38/AHB19-21) 27-MAY-1977.
<S6>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1995. NHER TF 9916AK-AS (NLA 357/HHG19-26) 15-AUG-1995.
<S7>Oblique Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1970. NHER TF 9916AZ (CUCAP BAT48) 09-FEB-1970.
<S8>Oblique Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1970. CUCAP (BAT47-49) 09-FEB-1970 (CUCAP).
<S9>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1995. OS/95566 5-6 19-JUN-1995 (NMR).
<S10>Monograph: Cushion, B. and Davison, A. 2003. Earthworks of Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 104. p 47.
<S11>Map: Corby, R.. 1811 to 1814. Scarning, Hoe, Worthing and Dillington enclosure award, with maps surveyed by Robert Corby of Kirstead.
<S12>Map: Bryant, A.. 1826. Bryant's Map of Norfolk.
<S13>Map: Bradfield, T.. 1847. Hoe tithe map..
<S14>Publication: Faden, W. and Barringer, J. C. 1989. Faden's Map of Norfolk in 1797.
<S15>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1824-1836. Ordnance Survey First Edition 1 inch..
<S16>Article in Serial: Horlock, S., Albone, J. and Tremlett, S. 2008. The Archaeology of Norfolk's Aggregate Landscape: Results of the National Mapping Programme. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt III pp 337-348.
<S17>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1996. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1995. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt III pp 397-412. p 402.

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