Record Details

NHER Number:21116
Type of record:Monument
Name:Medieval tofts and tracks


Earthworks of ditches, enclosures, tracks and house platforms can be seen on aerial photographs of this site. An earthworks survey revealed that these were related to medieval tofts and tracks. Roman, medieval and post medieval pottery has been found here along with brick and tile.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TG 055 009
Map Sheet:TG00SE

Full description

Earthworks east of Low Common, Deopham.
Date Unknown. Linear earthworks. Cambridge University Committee for Aerial Photography.
D. A. Edwards (NAU), 15 January 1985.

Resemble house platforms or similar.
E. Rose (NAU), 11 February 1985

12 July 1990. NAU Air Photography
Ditched enclosures centred TG 052 002
D. A. Edwards (NAU).

1997. Earthwork survey.
Survey at 1:1000 confirms tofts and tracks.
1 Roman pottery sherd (greyware jar rim).
1 ?Roman pottery sherd (body sherd ?Roman greyware).
10 medieval pottery sherds (medieval unglazed).
6 medieval/post-medieval pottery sherd (1 late medieval/transitional rim fragment and 5 body sherds.
2 ?medieval brick fragments.
1 post-medieval pottery sherd (Langerwehe stoneware) and 3 roof tile fragments.
See report (S13) for further details. This site was included in (S15) and the survey is also noted in (S16).
B. Cushion (NLA), May 1997. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 18 March 2015.

1 October 1996. NLA air photography.
Site visible.
H. Clare (NLA), 23 October 2001.

15 October 2003. Visit.
Visited at the request of Mr Catmur to assess the siting of a hay shelter. This is to be positioned in the far southwest of the site, where the survey report states the area to be outside the southernmost limit of the settlement earthworks, and was at one time under arable cultivation. The 'shelter' would be 6m (20 foot) square, erected on four posts with a corrugated iron roof. Holes for posts would be hand dug. Owner will contact H. Paterson (A&E) to watch for any artefacts when work starts.
H. Paterson (A&E), 17 October 2003.

January 2010. Norfolk NMP.
A composite plan of the earthworks has been built up using the available aerial photographs (S1)-(S12) and the existing earthwork survey, and as a result a number of changes or additions to the earthwork survey have been made:
The northern-most boundary is visible as a near continuous earthwork ditch on (S3), stretching as far as TG 0555 0107 to the west, with an additional section between TG 0562 0107 and TG 0559 0107 which was not recorded during the earthwork survey.
A continuation of the possible former medieval common edge to the south is also visible, as a curvilinear soilmark in the field to the east, stretching from TG 0570 0106 to TG 0574 0111 on (S3).
A new east-west ditch has been identified running from TG 0559 0109 to TG 0555 0109, which is parallel to the possible field boundary approximately 16m to the south, and may represent a possible feature situated on the former common.
The ditch in the centre of the area at TG 0565 0099, appears in fact to be continuous. The ditch around an enclosure to the southeast of the site was also recognised as being continuous, at TG 0565 0095, (S4), on which photograph a further possible enclosure was hinted at by an L shaped ditch centred on TG 0567 0104, and a north south ditch was visible to the north of then site at TG 0565 0109 that had not been previously recorded.
Breaks of slope that could not be positively identified from the aerial photographs include one centred on TG 0561 0100 and one centred on TG 0564 0100. That which is centred on TG 0561 0098 was felt to represent part of a linear feature. Also, to the north-west at TG 0555 0106 it was not possible to identify the break of slope depicted here on the earthwork survey.
The possible platform centred at TG 0558 0103 has been increased in size from approximately 27 x 18m to 32 x 23m.
A new possible linear ditch was recognised stretching from TG 0560 0104 to TG 0561 0097, parallel to another north south ditch approximately 6m to the west on (S8), although it is possible that this apparent ditch may have been caused by the movement of animals, as the area was used for grazing.
The earthworks have also been extended to the west, as another area of earthwork ditches are visible, centred on TG 0542 0107, which appear to be on the same alignment as those to the east.
E. Bales (NMP), January 2010.

August 2011. Norfolk NMP.
A continuation of the southernmost ditch into the adjacent field to the east may be visible on Google Earth imagery from 2006 (S14).
S. Tremlett (NMP), 10 August 2011.

Monument Types

  • DRAINAGE DITCH (Unknown date)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Undated)
  • ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOUSE PLATFORM (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOFT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VILLAGE GREEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRICK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Management Statement

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. NHER TG0501 A-B (RAF 3G/TUD/UK 52 5346) 13-JAN-1946.
<S2>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. NHER TG0601 A- (RAF 3G TUD/UK 52 5345) 13-JAN-1946.
<S3>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF/3G/TUD/UK/101 6004-5 30-MAR-1946 (NMR).
<S4>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1634 5133-5 09-JUL-1946 (NMR).
<S5>Oblique Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1966. NHER TG0500 A-B (CUCAP AMU22-23) 03-JAN-1966.
<S6>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1970. OS/70282 113-4 31-JUL-1970 (NMR).
<S7>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1973. OS/73240 160-61 07-JUN-1973 (NMR).
<S8>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1973. OS/73240 0197-8 07-JUN-1973 (NMR).
<S9>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A (NLA). 1989. NHER TG0501A-C (NLA DMC1-3 237) 12-JUL-1989.
<S10>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D. A. (NLA). 1990. NHER TG0500C-D (NLA GDL13-14 273) 12-JUL-1990.
<S11>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. NHER TG0501D-H (NLA HML5-9 375) 01-OCT-1996.
<S12>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Google Earth. ? - present. Google Earth Orthophotographs. XX-XXXX-1999 Accessed 27-JAN-2010.
<S13>Unpublished Report: Cushion, B. 1997. Deopham SMR 21116.
<S14>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Google Earth. ? - present. Google Earth Orthophotographs. XX-XXX-2006 Accessed 10-AUG-2011.
<S15>Monograph: Cushion, B. and Davison, A. 2003. Earthworks of Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 104. p 26.
<S16>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1998. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1997. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt I pp 193-210. p 196.

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