Record Details

NHER Number:11339
Type of record:Monument
Name:Site of Roman and medieval settlements and Itteringham Roman coin hoard

Summary

Cropmarks of enclosures and a trackway can be seen on aerial photographs. Fieldwalking and metal detecting recovered a range of finds dating from the prehistoric to the post-medieval period. This includes a Roman hoard of coins and objects. This contained 103 coins, two cosmetic sets (consisting of one mortar and one pestle each), a key, two Roman finger rings, one snake ring and parts of two greyware pots. This is interpreted as being an area of Roman settlement between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD.
Archaeological work at this site between 2008 and 2010 revealed extensive evidence for occupation, although the remains uncovered are thought to have been of predominantly medieval date. Trial trenching in 2008 revealed a number of ditches and a geophysical survey undertaken around the same time identified linear anomalies likely to represent a complex pattern of rectilinear enclosures. A subsequent excavation revealed a range of medieval features including ditches, pits, a large oven and a possible structure. Earlier remains were limited to several Early Iron Age features and single pits of possible Roman and Early Saxon date. An assemblage of redeposited and resued Roman tile was however also recovered, providing further evidence for the presence of a significant settlement somewhere in the vicinity during this period. The excavated features appear to have related to a phase of occupation that occurred between the 11th and 14th centuries, with very little evidence for subsequent activity. The excavation also recovered a reasonably large assemblage of redeposited iron smelting slag, indicating that iron was being produced at this site, most likely during the medieval period,

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TG13SW
Parish:ITTERINGHAM, NORTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1969 to 1970.
Cropmark on Ordnance Survey air photograph resembling half of a rectangular enclosure, is shown by NAU air photograph to be part of a large area of rectangular enclosures of all sizes, divided by two large wandering trackways north to south and east to west, with little roads leading off to the enclosures.

1981.
Cropmarks extended to northeast.
D. Edwards (NAU), 19 April 1982.

Winter 1979 to 1980. Contexts 1 and 2.
Cropmark site. Found on surface of cultivated field.
Prehistoric flints, Roman pottery, medieval sherds, pot boilers and iron slag found. Also Iron Age? Sherds.
See further details in file.
Identified by A. Gregory (NAU) and A. Rogerson (NAU) 28 May 1980.
A. Gregory (NAU), 18 May 1980.

Early 1992.
One body sherd medieval unglazed. Identified by A. Rogerson, (NLA).
Lump of iron slag.
1st to 2nd century Roman coin, see list in file. Identified by J. Davies, (NCM).
12th to 13th century lead circular seal matrix fragment. Fleur-de-lis in centre –-FIL' OSBE–- Very rough casting on reverse. ?unfinished. Identified by S. Margeson (NCM).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 June 1992.

April - May 1999. Metal detected finds. South corner in southern field.
Finger ring or binding ring. Internal diameter. 19mm. Ring made from 1.5mm thick bronze strip with sharp rectangular section. Decorated with oblique grooves in alternating directions. Gap in hoop at one point; here it is filed flat as if to accommodate a bezel or to be soldered onto a backplate. Early post medieval/modern.
Identified by H. Geake (NCM).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 June 1999.

4 February 2000. [1]
Context 3. Coin hoard found in ploughsoil and on subsoil.
Fifty nine denarii, thirty nine sestertii, three dupondii, two silver washed denarii, two cosmetic pestles, two cosmetic mortars, two Roman finger rings, one snake ring, parts of two greyware pots.

Context 4.
Four Roman sherds, medieval sherds, medieval casket key.
Sherds founds along north edge of field, south of Flemere.
Further details to come.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 16 February 2000.

Reports to H.M. Coroner in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 21 January 2002.

Published article (S2) describes this as a Roman site with cropmarks of rectangles and trackways where finds of Iron Age, Romano-British and medieval pottery as well as calcined flints have been reported. The site is at about 40m and appears to be focused on the Mere. Finds of metalwork suggests activity extending from the 1st to the 3rd centuries.

It seems likely that the medieval sherds represent the edge of some concentration near the Mere.
M. Dennis (NLA), 12 April 2006.

Summer 2005. Metal detecting, finders' field 11.
2 Roman and 6 medieval coins.
Roman, Late Saxon, medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file and CD.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 4 September 2006.

March-April 2008. Systematic Fieldwalking and Metal-detecting Survey.
Field survey on proposed route of Sheringham Shoals Offshore Windfarm Grid Connection (Field 7).
Finds recovered included:
2 prehistoric flint flake, 1 struck fragment and 1 chip.
1 Roman cosmetic mortar.
26 medieval pottery sherds.
1 post-medieval pottery sherd, 1 brick and 1 copper alloy button.
3 undatable metal-working debris fragments.
See report (S3) for further information. This work is also noted in (S4).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2017.361).
S. Howard (NLA), 19 November 2009. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 10 March 2015 and 27 May 2019.

September-November 2008. Trial Trenching.
Evaluation of site on proposed route of Sheringham Shoals Offshore Windfarm Grid Connection cable (Trenches 74-77).
The four trenches excavated in this field revealed four ditches, all of which were aligned roughly east-to-west or north-to-south. One of these ditches produced a small assemblage of abraded medieval pottery sherds but finds from the other features were limited to a single handmade pottery sherd of possible Early Neolithic date. The latter was recovered from an east-to-west aligned feature that appears to correspond with a former field boundary marked on 19th-century maps.
See reports (S5) and (S6) for further details. This work is also noted in (S4).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2017.361).
P. Watkins (HES), 10 June 2019.

September-November 2008. Geophysical Survey.
Magnetometer survey of site on proposed route of Sheringham Shoals Offshore Windfarm Grid Connection cable (Sites 5a and 5b).
This survey identified a series linear anomalies that appear to represent a complex pattern of rectilinear enclosures. These remains are particularly dense in the central part of the field.
Report awaited. Information from (S6).
P. Watkins (HES), 10 June 2019.

September 2008. Excavation.
Excavation on proposed route of Sheringham Shoals Offshore Windfarm Grid Connection cable. From Context 100.
Struck and burnt flints recovered from the site appear to date from the Early Neolithic broadly cover the late prehistoric period and include a small blade.
Two ditches dating to the Early Iron Age in the northern area of the site and eight pits spread along the length of the site with Iron Age pottery and worked flint being recovered from these features.
A small pit in the south of the site was found to contain a single sherd of Roman pottery with a further six residual sherds. A fragment of Roman bow brooch was also recovered from this area.
An Early Saxon pit was observed in the southern end of the site.
The site is mainly occupied during the medieval period with occupation from the 11th century lasting until the 14th century with activity concentrated in the central area of the site on a north-facing slope. Features dating to this period of occupation include ditches, pits, a large oven and possible structure. One pit contained a large amount of iron slag and slag was also used in the construction of the oven. It is possible that the remains are possibly yards and/or paddocks with possible industrial activity surrounding the settlement. Animal remains and charred cereal grains were recovered from all contexts across the site.
Final report awaited. See assessment report (S6) for further details. The results of this work are also briefly summarised in (S4).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2010.80).
S. Howard (HES), 1 July 2011. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 11 May 2019.

Monument Types

  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • ROAD (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • BURNT MOUND (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DITCH (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Iron Age - 800 BC to 401 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • PIT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon to Medieval - 851 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • METAL WORKING SITE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • OVEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PIT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1399 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BUILDING MATERIAL (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • NAIL (Unknown date)
  • PLANT MACRO REMAINS (Unknown date)
  • BORER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BURNT FLINT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • DEBITAGE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DEBITAGE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • NOTCHED FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BLADE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 3001 BC?)
  • POT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Early Iron Age - 800 BC to 401 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COSMETIC MORTAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COSMETIC MORTAR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COSMETIC PESTLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLUE TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • POT (Roman to Medieval - 43 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman to Medieval - 43 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEGULA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BELL (Post Roman - 410 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BELL (Post Roman - 410 AD? to 1900 AD?)
  • POT (Saxon - 410 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BELL (Late Saxon to Medieval - 851 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG? (Late Saxon to Medieval - 851 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • BRICK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • OVEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • RING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • XFIRED CLAY (Medieval - 1066 AD? to 1539 AD?)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1100 AD to 1299 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Medieval - 1200 AD? to 1399 AD?)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS? (Medieval - 1200 AD to 1399 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1250 AD to 1299 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PANTILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • RING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • VESSEL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: OS AP 69 038 181, NAU AP TG1232A-D, TG1231/A-D.
---*Verbal Communication: Dawes, A.. [unknown].
---Map: Finder's Map..
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2000. Norfolk finds deemed to be treasure trove. 15 December.
---Photograph: Riddler, I.. 2005. Digital photographs of Discovery Tours finds, Summer 2005. CD.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2009. Historic sites are unearthed. 13 July.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Unpublished Contractor Report: Hickling, S. 2010. Archaeological Evaluations along the route of the Sheringham Shoals Offshore Windfarm Grid Connection. NAU Archaeology. 1808b.
---Collection: Norfolk Historic Environment Record Staff. 1975-[2000]. HER Record Notes. Norfolk Historic Environment Service.
<S1>Unpublished Document: Williams, J. et al. 2000. Itteringham Hoard. Report to H.M. Coroner.. 20 June.
<S2>Article in Serial: Davison, A. 1995. The Field Archaeology of the Mannington and Wolterton Estates. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt II pp 160-184.
<S3>Unpublished Contractor Report: Westall, S. and Smith, M. 2008. An Archaeological Fieldwalking and Metal-detector Survey Along the Route of the Sheringham Shoal Offshore Wind Farm Onshore Grid Connection. NAU Archaeology. 1808a.
<S4>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Hoggett, R. 2010. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2009. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLVI Pt I pp 135-147. p 146.
<S5>Unpublished Contractor Report: Hickling, S. 2010. Archaeological Evaluations along the route of the Sheringham Shoals Offshore Windfarm Grid Connection. NAU Archaeology. 1808b.
<S6>Unpublished Contractor Report: Hickling, S. 2010. An Archaeological Evaluation, Excavation and Watching Brief along the route of the Sheringham Shoals Offshore Windfarm Grid Connection. Assessment Report and Updated Project Design. NAU Archaeology. 1808c.

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