Record Details

NHER Number:7934
Type of record:Monument
Name:Part of the Roman settlement at Scole


This site lies to the west of the largest excavation of the Roman settlement at Scole, NHER 1007.
Excavation in the eastern portion of this area in 1936 and 1937 recorded evidence of Roman settlement including the remains of several buildings, a gravel road oriented north-west to south-east, and a piled timber structure interpreted as a possible wharf. Flint foundations and floors were recorded in at least three separate areas and pottery finds indicate that this site was occupied from about 70 AD to the late second century AD. Other Roman finds include a leather shoe from the water-logged area near the possible wharf as well as a pipeclay figurine of Venus, a bone spindle whorl, a quern fragment, bronze pins, and a needle. An assemblage of Mesolithic worked flints was also recovered.
A further section of the Roman road was observed in section within a drainage ditch in 1963, but excavation of a trial trench in the western portion of the site in 2012 recorded only a single undated pit. A subsequent watching brief on the same site in 2014 identified no significant remains, although the ground disturbance was minimal.

For more information on the Roman settlement at Scole, please see NHER 1007.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TM 1425 7892
Map Sheet:TM17NW

Full description

1936 to 1937. Excavation.
A small area was excavated following discovery of several Roman pottery sherds on the surface of this field.
A timber framework consisting of piles with morticed raking struts and fallen timber (also morticed together) was recorded towards the north of the investigated area. The excavators identified this as a wharf, suggesting that a creek ran from this area to the River Waveney. The timber piles were preserved to a depth of 3.5 to 4 feet, and several finds were recorded at a depth of 4 to 5 feet including fragments of leather, a Roman sandal, a horse's skull, and pottery fragments.
A gravel road oriented north-west to south-east was recorded to the north-east of the wharf and a large deposit of flints was noted in-between the road and the wharf. The road was believed to be Roman.
Three areas of occupation were defied to the south and east of the wharf. Timber buildings with flint foundations with thick floors of lime and sand were observed. Finds of burnt wood, iron nails, and pottery led the excavators to believe the buildings were destroyed by fire on several occasions and later flooded. Despite mention of flint foundations, no building plans were recorded. However, in the easternmost area remains of a flint doorway were located.

The finds suggest that this site was occupied from about 70AD to the late second century AD. Roman pottery finds include Samian ware, Castor ware, late first to early second century mortaria, flagons, rusticated ware, and an amphora handle. Other finds include a fragment from a quern made from Hertfordshire conglomerate, part of a pipeclay figurine of Venus, glass fragments, six bronze pins, a bronze needle, a bone spindle whorl, two coins including a dupondius of Sabine (117-138), and tiles. A large number of sling stones were also recovered.

This work also recovered many worked flints, the majority of which appear to have been Mesolithic. Seven of the flints are included in one of the photographic plates in (S1) and were accessioned separately by the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 1962.590). These flints are noted in (S2) and listed in (S3) as 1 microlith, 5 blades and 1 serrated blade. The NCM also holds a second collection of Mesolithic flints from this site (NWHCM : 1958.207), these being listed in (S2) as comprising 117 blades/flakes, 1 microlith, 1 scraper and 1 miscellaneous piece.

The other finds from this work are also held by the NCM (NWHCM : 1962.590 : A, NWHCM : 1958.206 : A, NWHCM : 1964.325.AS7956 : A?) and [1].
See (S1), (S4), and (S5) for further information.
See (S6) and [2] for photographs.
See also press articles (S7) and (S8). Additional press articles have been noted in the Eastern Daily Press (1936: 27 March, 9 April, 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 May, 5, 12, 19, and 26 June, 3 July), East Anglian Daily Times, Discovery (May 1936, p 158), and The Times (April 1936).
H. Hamilton (HES), 01 August 2013. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 8 January 2014.

1963. Casual observation.
A road orientated north-west to south-east was observed in the side of a drainage ditch.
E. Rose (NAU), 22 January 1990.

November 2012. Trial Trench.
One small, shallow, undated pit was recorded during excavation of a single trench.
The pit was truncated by a modern service trench for a drainage pipe and contained no finds. One environmental sample was taken from the feature, but the only plant remains observed were small fragments of wood charcoal.
Alluvial deposits present in the trench were investigated via a sondage and were seen to increase in depth at the northern end of the trench, revealing the natural incline of the river terrace valley.
See report (S9) for further information.
H. Hamilton (HES), 26 June 2013.

July-September 2014. Watching Brief.
Monitoring of excavation of stantion pits for warehouse extension.
No archaeologically significant features were exposed and no finds were recovered. The deposits exposed confirmed that the site had lain on the margin of the Waveney flood plain. An alluvial silt was exposed beneath the topsoil that was at its deepest in the southern part of the site. Across much of the site this deposit sealed a peaty, more sandy, riverine silt. Localised modern disturbance was noted at the southern and eastern margins of the site.
See report (S10) for further details.
P. Watkins (HES), 19 October 2016.

Monument Types

  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FLOOR (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WHARF? (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • SERRATED BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BOTTLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SHOE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TM 17 NW 13.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Collection: Norfolk Historic Environment Record Staff. 1975-[2000]. HER Record Notes. Norfolk Historic Environment Service.
<S1>Article in Serial: Gale, C. H and Moore, I. E. 1936. Roman Remains in Scole. Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. Vol XXII Pt 3 pp 263-286.
<S2>Monograph: Wymer, J. J. and Bonsall, C. J. (eds). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic Sites in England and Wales with a Gazetteer of Upper Palaeolithic Sites in England and Wales. Council for British Archaeology Research Report. No. 20. p 212.
<S3>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 10342.
<S4>Publication: Mallows, J. 1962. Scole from past to present. p 3.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gale, C. H. 1937. The Romans in Scole. East Anglian Magazine. May, pp 306-307.
<S6>Photograph: Moore, I.E.. 1936. Photographs of excavations at Muck's Duck Farm, Waterloo, Scole. black and white. print.
<S7>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1936. Excavations at Scole [Photograph]. 4 May.
<S8>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1936. Roman Finds at Scole After Suston Discoveries. 3 April.
<S9>Unpublished Contractor Report: Payne, D. 2012. Archaeological Evaluation by Trial Trenching on Land at Waterloo Lane, Scole, Norfolk. Archaeoserv.
<S10>Unpublished Contractor Report: Payne, D. 2014. Archaeological Monitoring on Land at Waterloo Lane, Scole, Norfolk. Archaeoserv.

Related records - none

Find out more...

Norfolk County Council logo Heritage Lottery Fund logo

Powered by HBSMR-web and the HBSMR Gateway from exeGesIS SDM Ltd, and mojoPortal CMS
© 2007 - 2024 Norfolk Historic Environment Service