Record Details

NHER Number:7023
Type of record:Monument
Name:Possible Late Bronze Age cremation cemetery, Roman kiln and multi-period finds

Summary

Ploughsoil clearance in 1960 revealed five Late Bronze Age urns, one containing a cremation, and surrounding dark soil was thought to indicate the position of former urns. Excavation in 1961 identified two phases of a Roman kiln, during the second of which the floor of the kiln was lowered. Dating of the pottery forms proved difficult but a tentative suggestion of the 3rd century was offered. Fieldwalking in the 1960s and 1970s and metal-detecting in 2009 and 2012 recovered prehistoric flints and pot boilers; Late Saxon to post-medieval pottery sherds; medieval coins and Roman to post-medieval metal objects. The metal finds include a Roman brooch; a Late Saxon harness fitting; a medieval thimble and seal matrix and a post-medieval button and spur fragment.

Images

  • The excavation of a Bronze Age urnfield in Witton in the 1960s.  © Norfolk County Council
  • Roman brooch from NHER 7023  © Norfolk County Council
  • Late Saxon harness fitting from NHER 7023  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval seal matrix from NHER 7023  © Norfolk County Council
  • Medieval seal matrix cast from NHER 7023  © Norfolk County Council
  • Post-medieval button from NHER 7023  © Norfolk County Council

Location

Grid Reference:TG 32 30
Map Sheet:TG33SW
Parish:WITTON, NORTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

OS fields 196-200 combined.

1960. Bronze Age urn field excavated.
1961. Roman kiln investigated.
1960s - 70s. Fieldwalking; flint and pottery; cropmarks (S3)-(S5).
1993. Daub found.
Site details, photos, list of finds in secondary file and (S1).
E. Rose (NLA), 2 November 1994.

'Urn field I' Context 6: In 1960 a soot patch with small bone fragments was noted, one sherd of Bronze Age type. Ploughing was stopped after it revealed more pottery sherds. An area of around 5.3m by 4.2m was cleared of ploughsoil and revealed five urns, one containing a cremation. The dark soil found around the urns may indicate the position of former urns.
Context 8: A few sherds and suspected waster had been found, and in 1960 probing located the burnt clay of a kiln wall. The feature was excavated. The stoke-hole pit to the northeast of the chamber was unusually large and without traces of burning on the walls. It may have been the remains of an earlier kiln. The excavator identified two phases of activity, in the second of which the floor of the kiln was lowered. Once disused the chamber was filled with brown loam and fragments of fired clay, sherds and wasters. At the top was a layer of grey bar clay fragments, thought to be a dump of kiln furniture from another kiln. Dating of the pottery forms proved difficult but a tentative suggestion of third century was offered.
See (S1).
Ruth Fillery-Travis (NLA), 10 September 2007.

March 2005. Norfolk NMP.
Cropmarks of rectilinear enclosures (previously recorded as NHER 7023 contexts 5 and 9) have been moved to NHER 38866.
J. Albone (NMP), 10 March 2005.

September- October 2009. Metal detecting.
Medieval seal matrix.
see description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 25 November 2009.

October 2012. Metal-detecting. [1].
Roman zoomorphic brooch.
Late Saxon harness link of unusual form.
2 medieval coins.
Medieval/post-medieval thimble and seal matrix.
Post-medieval D-sectioned spur side fragment and silver button.
Information from PAS import.
A. Beckham (HES), 2 November 2012.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Unknown date)
  • MOUND (Unknown date)
  • BURNT MOUND (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • CEMETERY (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CREMATION (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • ROUND BARROW (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon to Medieval - 851 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • WHETSTONE (Undated)
  • CORE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DISCOIDAL KNIFE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • KILN WASTE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN WASTE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 175 AD to 400 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Late Saxon to Medieval - 1000 AD to 1100 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • QUERN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL MATRIX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • THIMBLE (13th Century to 16th Century - 1300 AD to 1600 AD)
  • COIN (14th Century - 1306 AD to 1307 AD)
  • COIN (14th Century - 1310 AD to 1314 AD)
  • SEAL MATRIX (14th Century to 16th Century - 1400 AD to 1600 AD)
  • CLAY PIPE (SMOKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (16th Century to 17th Century - 1600 AD to 1700 AD)
  • SPUR (16th Century to 18th Century - 1600 AD to 1800 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TG3230/C-D,G-H; RAF 106G/UK/1634/1106-7.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Correspondence: Robins, P.. 1989. J.E Owles flint collection brought in to Castle Museum for identification.. 5 April.
---Serial: 1960. Council for British Archaeology Group 7 Bulletin of Archaeological Discoveries for 1960. No 7. p 6.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Miscellaneous Prehistoric. Witton - NHER 7020 [2]; Witton - NHER 7074.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Witton [6].
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Witton.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Witton [3]; Witton - NHER 7073.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Witton; Witton - NHER 7020.
---Monograph: Swan, V. G.. 1984. The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain. Royal Commission on Historical Monuments Supplementary Series. 5.
---Article in Serial: 1961. Other Archaeological Excavations, 1960. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 13 (for 1960) pp 1-2. p 2.
---Article in Serial: 1963. Archaeological Discoveries in Norfolk, 1961. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 14 (for 1961 and 1962) pp 1-3. p 3.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Illustration: [Unknown]. Drawing of a Roman pottery vessel. Card. 1:1.
---Collection: Norfolk Historic Environment Record Staff. 1975-[2000]. HER Record Notes. Norfolk Historic Environment Service.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Miscellaneous. Witton - NHER 7022.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Evening News. 1960. Bronze Age urn-field […]. 16 December.
<S1>Article in Serial: Lawson, A. J. 1983. The Archaeology of Witton, near North Walsham. East Anglian Archaeology. No 18. pp 46-49.
<S2>Article in Serial: 1962. [unknown]. vol LII. Vol LII, p 176. p 176.
<S3>Illustration: [Norwich Castle Museum staff]. 1960. Drawing of a Neolithic part-polished flint axehead. Paper. 1:1.
<S4>Illustration: Moss, G. I. 1960. Drawing of a Neolithic/Bronze Age discoidal flint knife. Paper. 1:1.
<S5>Illustration: Gregory, T. 1960. Drawing of a Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age barbed and tanged flint arrowhead. Card. 1:1.

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