Record Details

NHER Number:27840
Type of record:Monument
Name:Medieval and post-medieval earthworks


A probable medieval road and a post-medieval park feature, both visible as earthworks on 1969 Hunting Survey vertical aerial photographs. An earthwork ridges associated with the former survives with the small wood known as Wilbraham's Clump.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TF 8946 4310
Map Sheet:TF84SE

Full description

June 2002. Norfolk NMP.
The larger feature is visible for a maximum distance of 1.4 km, running in an approximately east to west direction from TF 8878 4310 to TF 9019 4300, curving in a shallow arc towards the north (S1). The feature is actually visible in five separate sections, although they are almost certainly all the same feature. The largest break within the course is at Wilbraham's Clump, where the course of the feature is obscured for a length of 180m. The western end was still surviving as an earthwork in 1969 (S1), while the eastern end is visible as a cropmark. At the western end, where the feature survives as an earthwork, it consists of a central raised causeway, with an approximate width of 5m, and with a narrow ditch on each side. This is likely to represent the course of the medieval road from Holkham to Wells, known as Wellgate Way, as recorded in 1590 (S2) but subsequently removed during the emparkment.
There is a second, more angular length of bank to the south, running in a zigzag course from TF 8892 4303 to TF 8922 4318, for a total length of 350m (S1). This feature appears to post-date the road, and is more likely to be a garden or park feature.
M. Brennand (NMP), 19 June 2002.

May-June 2012. Walkover Survey.
Archaeological Earthwork Rapid Identification Survey of Holkham Estate.
A 125m long, 20m wide, east-to-west aligned ridge was identified within Wilbraham's Clump (Compartment 7f). The position of this feature (running between approximately TF 8928 4317 and
TF 8928 4317) suggests that it is almost certainly the 'missing' section of the extensive linear feature visible as cropmarks and earthworks to either side of the plantation.
See report (S3) for further details.
P. Watkins (HES), 19 September 2018.

Monument Types

  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • ROAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • GARDEN FEATURE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

<S1>Aerial Photograph: Hunting Surveys Ltd. 1969. HSL UK 69949 0148-9 20-NOV-1969 (SMR TF 8843A).
<S2>Monograph: Williamson, T.. 1998. Archaeology of the Landscape Park: Garden Design in Norfolk, England, c. 1680-1840.. BAR (British Series). Vol 268.
<S3>Unpublished Contractor Report: Cushion, B. 2012. Holkham Estate Woodland. Archaeological Earthwork Rapid Identification Survey. Brian Cushion Archaeological & Cartographical Surveyor.

Related records

1802Part of: Holkham Park (Designed Landscape)

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