Record Details

NHER Number:31217
Type of record:Monument
Name:Earthworks of undated and post medieval banks


Undated banks on this site have been variously interpreted as natural glacial features, prehistoric banks, parish boundaries, medieval to post medieval rabbit warren boundaries, or post-medieval field boundaries used to separate heath from arable. It seems likely that these may be a combination of parish boundary bank and warren boundaries, perhaps formed in part from natural features. Some correspond with boundaries depicted on late 19th century Ordnance Survey maps, indicating a post medieval date for these at least. At least some of the banks are visible as earthworks on lidar imagery and aerial photographs; these have been recorded as part of NHER 61537.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TL 814 890
Map Sheet:TL88NW

Full description

Earthwork complex. Series of single and double banks.
R. R. Clarke (NCM) noted a 'series of parallel banks running south from Grimes Graves, one forming boundary between Weeting and Santon, extending to Santon Breck Roman site. Suggested by Fox as 'Prehistoric'.
However in a lecture to the Prehistoric Society 1974 [1] he stated that during the Grimes Graves excavations sections through the banks revealed them to be glacial.
See (S1) and (S2).

However C. Pendleton (SAU) and K. Sussams (SAU) suggest these are late medieval or post medieval warren boundaries.
See descriptions and (S3) in file.

The bank running east to west to west of Grimes Graves is not included in the county number without further evidence as this seems to be simply a pre-afforestation field boundary. Possibly these features are a combination of parish boundary bank, glacial ridges and warren boundaries; the latter perhaps formed from natural features in part.
E. Rose (NLA), 7 June 1995.

(S4) for Santon parish shows one of the linear earthworks to be a field boundary, separating arable from heath.
Details in file.
K. Sussams (SAU) 2 January 1996.

August 2014. Breaking New Ground field visit. HA 15 and 25.
There are north to south aligned banks either side of a ride at Santon Street (in the vicinity of TL81378842).
To the east of the ride are two parallel banks (HA 15), 3.4-4m apart. The eastern of these is 6m wide and up to 0.5m tall. The western of the two is 4.5-5m wide and up to 0.3m tall.
The banks to the east of the ride defined the western boundary of Santon Warren (NHER 54065). Those to the west of the ride defined the eastern boundary of Bromehill Warren (NHER 54063).
D. Robertson (HES), 27 July 2015.

February 2018. 'Brecks from Above' and Breckland National Mapping Programme.
At least some, and possibly all, of the banks described above are visible as earthworks on imagery from a recent lidar survey and, to a lesser extent, aerial photographs. They have been recorded as part of NHER 61537, a much more extensive and cohesive area of boundaries and trackways; please see that record and associated mapping for further details, including sources. As it is not entirely clear from the description above precisely which banks are included in this record, the Monument Polygon defining the site has not been updated.
S. Tremlett (Norfolk Historic Environment Service), 2nd February 2018.

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Unknown date)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOUNDARY (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LINEAR FEATURE (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PARISH BOUNDARY (Medieval to 21st Century - 1066 AD? to 2100 AD)
  • RABBIT WARREN (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status


Sources and further reading

---Publication: Clarke, W. G. and Clarke, R. R. 1937. In Breckland Wilds. Second Edition. p 69.
---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TL 88 NW 44 [2].
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Publication: Fox, C. 1923. The Archaeology of the Cambridge Region: a topographical study of the Bronze, Early Iron, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon Ages, with an introductory note on the Neolithic Age. p 127.
<S2>Article in Serial: Clarke, W. G. 1920. A Romano-British Site at Santon. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia. Vol III Pt II (for 1919-20) pp 206-208. p 206.
<S3>Map: Finder's Map..
<S4>Map: 1840. Santon tithe map.

Related records

61537Part of: Boundary banks, including warren banks, and trackways of probable medieval to post-medieval date (Monument)
54063Part of: Broomhill/Weeting medieval to post medieval rabbit warren (Monument)
54065Part of: Medieval to post-medieval rabbit warren, Santon (Monument)
31770Related to: Field Barn, site of Santon Warren Lodge (Monument)

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