Record Details

NHER Number:30511
Type of record:Monument
Name:Hilborough Park

Summary

A landscape park surrounding Hilborough Hall, NHER 2717. The park was probably laid out in the late 18th century, and expanded during the 19th century. The park had an ornamental lake, water gardens, a shrubbery and a walled kitchen garden. Various earthworks relating to the pre-park landscape are visible within the park, including marl pits and a medieval toft. The courses of several former roads, which were closed in the early 19th century, are also visible as earthworks. The park was created by Ralph Cauldwell, a former land agent for the Holkham estate, and is a good example of how the 'naturalistic' design of the landscape park could be created by smaller landowners.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 828 001
Map Sheet:TF80SW
Parish:GREAT CRESSINGHAM, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK
HILBOROUGH, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

In 1763 Ralph Caldwell bought the estate, and in 1779 he built Hilborough Hall (NHER 2717). A park associated with an earlier manor house was recorded to the north of the church in a survey of 1627, according to (S3). The trees in the park are all c.200 years old it therefore seems likely that the park is contemporary to the Hall. In 1788 the hall was called Hilborough Park House, indicating there was a park at that time. Faden’s map (S5), surveyed in 1794, shows a park of c.40 hectares bounded north, west and south by roads. The south road led past the church (NHER 2718) to the mill (NHER 5043). The sluices and weirs of the mill caused the broadness of the river which ran across the south-east of the estate. There are two drives shown on Faden’s map, from the west and the south, both led to the Hall.
The 1814-1818 Draught Ordnance Survey map (S1) shows an expanded park to the north, at the expense of a road, and to the south, east of the church.
The 1845 Tithe Award map (S6) shows a similar pattern of woodland to today, although now it is thicker. Between 1814/18 and 1845 the park had grown to a size of c.70 hectares, so the church and the mill became enclosed within the park. The expansion of the park meant that the road to the church had to be moved south. It is still shown on the 1845 map, along with the new road, today the old road is clearly visible as an earthwork and used as a public footpath. The south driveway to the Hall has disappeared, but possible traces remain as an earthwork. The western driveway had been slightly adjusted due to the park’s expansion. A circular lake has been created by 1845 on the opposite side of the river to the park and directly opposite the Hall. A boathouse and a bridge across to the lake are shown on the map.
Little alternation to the park took place in the late 19th/early 20th centuries besides considerable tree planting judging from the date of existing trees. The mill was blocked from view through the planting of woodland, north and west of it.
Oak is the predominant tree in the park and the oldest surveyed trees are beech and plane. There is a walled garden and evidence of 19th century water gardens and shrubbery.
See (S1), (S5) and (S6).
E. Rose (NLA) 21 March 1994.
Updated by C. Hurst (UEA), 14 November 2011.

Linear features of roads and drives, with banks to some 0.75m seen in parkland.
Good condition in grazed pasture.
H. Paterson (A&E), 14 June 1996.

February 2000. Earthwork Survey.
Earthworks survey at 1:1250.
Additional plan shows pottery scatters, see list in file.
Roman, medieval and post medieval sherds.
Identified by A. Rogerson (NLA)
See report (S4) for plan and further details. This site was included in (S7) and the survey is also noted in (S8).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 8 April 2015.

(S3) notes the courses of several former public roads, closed in the early 19th century, marl pits, a medieval toft,and fragmentary enclosures.
The park was created by Ralph Cauldwell, a former land agent for the Holkham estate, and is a good example of how the 'naturalistic' design of the landscape park could be created by smaller landowners.
S. Spooner (NLA) 4 January 2005

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Unknown date)
  • DRAINAGE DITCH (Unknown date)
  • POND (Unknown date)
  • ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HOLLOW WAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOFT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOAT HOUSE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOUNDARY (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GARDEN WALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KITCHEN GARDEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LANDSCAPE PARK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MARL PIT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ORNAMENTAL LAKE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROAD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SITE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WATER GARDEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TF 8200 AB,AC.
---Monograph: Williamson, T.. 1998. Archaeology of the Landscape Park: Garden Design in Norfolk, England, c. 1680-1840.. BAR (British Series). Vol 268. p 144.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Unpublished Document: Norfolk County Council. [unknown]. Inventory of Historic Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Norfolk..
<S2>Designation: English Heritage. Register of Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in England..
<S3>Article in Serial: Davison, A. 1994. The Field Archaeology of Bodney and the Stanta Extension. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt I pp 57-79. p 71.
<S4>Unpublished Report: Cushion, B. 2000. Hilborough SMR30511. Earthwork Survey Report.
<S5>Publication: Faden, W. and Barringer, J. C. 1989. Faden's Map of Norfolk in 1797.
<S6>Map: Pratt & Son, Norwich. 1845. Hilborough tithe map.
<S7>Monograph: Cushion, B. and Davison, A. 2003. Earthworks of Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 104. p 215.
<S8>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2001. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2000. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt IV pp 707-728. p 713.

Related records

2718Parent of: All Saints' Church, Hilborough (Building)
5043Parent of: Hilborough Mill (Building)
2717Part of: Hilborough Hall (Building)

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