Record Details

NHER Number:29198
Type of record:Monument
Name:Multi-period features

Summary

Several archaeological evaluations have been carried out on this site since 1992, revealing a long history of occupation dating back to the prehistoric period. Evidence of Neolithic activity has been recovered from the site in the form of worked flints and pottery, and a number of Early Neolithic pits have been discovered, including one which contained burnt wood and other debris, and a human cremation. Other pits have been dated to the Bronze Age, and a ditch and two pits have been dated to the Iron Age. This does not seem to have been the site of a Roman settlement, although Roman pottery has been found on the surface. A settlement was established here in the Early Saxon period, and the remains of sunken-featured buildings, or grubenhauser, have been excavated, as well as a Middle Saxon post-hole. Metal detecting on the site has recovered a Viking bridle cheekpiece and other metal finds. The latest archaeological features found on the site are two post medieval drainage ditches.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TM 3398 9702
Map Sheet:TM39NW
Parish:MUNDHAM, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

September-October 1992. Fieldwalking and Metal-detecting Survey and Trial Trenching.
Evaluation carried out in area of proposed gravel extraction.
The field survey recovered finds dating from the Bronze Age to the post-medieval period, although no concentrations were identified.
Trial trenching located a small number of prehistoric and Saxon features, including an Iron Age land division and settlement activities represented by a ditch and pit and also a diffuse early Saxon settlement. Two sunken featured buildings were recorded, one apparently within a small enclosure.
See report (S1) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S2) and (S3).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2017.470).
J. Bown (NAU), 6 October 1992. Amended by M. Langham-Lopez (HES), 1 July 2013.

1993. Metal-detecting.
11th century Viking Ringerike-stype bridle cheekpiece fragment. A very long elongated animal head with lobed muzzle and mane of tendrils broken at other end.
Medieval gilded casket-mount fragment and trefoil pierced terminal.
Medieval moulded handle fragment. Broken across on rivet hole.
?Med heavy duty copper alloy fragment 'beak' shaped from ?vessel.
Polaroids in file.
Identified by S. Margeson (NCM) 29 March 1994.
W. Milligan (NCM) 21 December 1993.

November 2002. Trial Trenching. Contexts 10000-10028.
Revealed a pit with prehistoric pottery and struck flint, two post-medieval ditches and undated ditch and pits.
See report (S4) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S5).
J. Allen (NLA), 12 March 2003. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 13 May 2019.

September-November 2004. Watching Brief and Excavation. Contexts 1000-1149.
Revealed total of 64 features, consisting mostly of early Neolithic pits, post holes and stake holes.
Later phases represented at the site comprise a single late Bronze Age/early Iron Age pit, one late Iron Age pit, and two parallel post-medieval drainage ditches. Early Neolithic remains included one human cremation, as well as a pit containing large quantities of burnt wood and redeposited pyre debris, including calcined human bone. Possible votive/placed deposits of a flint scraper and a hammerstone were found in two pits. A deep, bell-shaped pit, possible used for storage, appeared to have been sealed with a layer of pottery after it went out of use, perhaps representing another votive offering. Another pit was lined by fragments of a broken pot, and yielded a substantial assemblage of early Neolithic pottery (296 sherds weighing c. 4kg). Numerous discrete pits yielded early Neolithic pottery and struck flint.
See report (S6) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7).
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2010.67).
J. Allen (NLA), 10 July 2007. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 27 April 2019.

September-December 2007. Excavation and Watching Brief.
Details awaited.
The associated archive has been deposited with the Norwich Castle Museum (NWHCM : 2010.67).
P. Watkins (HES), 13 May 2019.

October 2009. Excavation.
Details awaited.
P. Watkins (HES), 13 May 2019.

2012. Excavation.
Details awaited.
P. Watkins (HES), 13 May 2019.

2013. Excavation.
Details awaited.
P. Watkins (HES), 29 May 2019.

Monument Types

  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CREMATION (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FUNERAL PYRE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • PIT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • POST HOLE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • STAKE HOLE (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • PIT (Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age - 1000 BC to 401 BC)
  • DITCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BUILDING (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • GRUBENHAUS (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • PIT (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Saxon - 410 AD to 650 AD)
  • PIT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • DITCH (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DRAINAGE DITCH (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • NAIL (Undated)
  • STUD (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • WEIGHT (Undated)
  • CORE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CREMATION (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BRICK (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • POT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HARNESS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRICK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BRIQUETAGE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUTTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • QUERN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WORKED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MUSKET BALL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Serial: 1993. Rescue News.. No 59.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1993. Planners split over quarry for historic site. 23 January.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Fiche: Exists.
<S1>Unpublished Contractor Report: Bown, J. and Flitcroft, M. 1992. Evaluation Report. Mundham Road, Mundham. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 32.
<S2>Article in Serial: Nenk, B. S., Margeson, S. and Hurley, M. 1993. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1992. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XXXVII pp 240-313. p 274.
<S3>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1993. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1992. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt IV pp 522-532. p 527.
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Crank, N. 2002. Land off Mundham Road, Mundham, Norfolk. An Archaeological Evaluation. Hertfordshire Archaeological Trust. 1222.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2003. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk, 2002. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt II pp 368-384. p 375.
<S6>Unpublished Contractor Report: Doyle, K. and Weston, P. 2005. Land off Mundham Road, Mundham, Norfolk. An Archaeological Watching Brief and Excavation. Archaeological Solutions. 1778.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2006. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2005. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt I pp 124-136. p 130.

Related records - none

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