Record Details

NHER Number:21849
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of a possible Roman fort and Iron-Age to Roman settlement features.

Summary

The cropmarks of a triple ditched enclosure, which may relate to a possible Roman fort, and linear ditch features, possibly relating to Iron Age to Roman settlement, can be seen as cropmarks on aerial photographs. Finds from multiple periods have been recovered from the area, however, only a limited number of Roman finds have been recorded (See NHER 58762 for details).

Images

  • Aerial photograph of Cawston Roman fort.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service

Location

Grid Reference:TG 14 24
Map Sheet:TG12SW
Parish:CAWSTON, BROADLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

16 July 1986. NAU aerial photographs. Flight 179.
Positive cropmarks.
Linear and curvilinear ditches.
Triple ditched enclosure with entrance to west. Possible Roman fort. Radiused corners on north east and north west. Faint outer ditch, wide inner ditch, very narrow innermost ditch - all three respecting same entrance. East side of enclosure not parallel to west side. South east and south west corners and south side not within field of cereals and not showing up in sugar beet to south.
Information from (S1). See also short report in (S2).
D. A. Edwards (NAU) 21 August 1986.

Enlargement of photograph shows that south side of enclosure is visible beyond modern road.
E. Rose, D Edwards (NAU) and A. Gregory (NCM) 19 September 1986.

26 June 1996. NLA air photography.
Cropmarks of triple-ditched fort showing clearly.
A curvilinear positive cropmark can be seen within the north west corner of the fort. This may be part of the defenc
To the north of the fort a complex series of rectilinear enclosures and linears can be seen. These features may be some sort of settlement, adjacent to 2 parallel linears, possibly a road or trackway, associated with the fort, although some of the linears appear to intersect the eastern edge of the fort. They may therefore represent a separate phase of settlement.
S. Massey (NLA), 30 August 2001.

See NHER 58762 for details of the finds recovered at this site.

October 2021. Aylsham and Brampton Aerial Investigation and Mapping (AIM) Project.
A previously recorded (see above) triple ditched enclosure, which may relate to a possible Roman fort, and linear ditch features, possibly relating to Iron Age to Roman settlement, can be seen as cropmarks on aerial photographs (S3-S5). The enclosure has been previously suggested (see above) to relate to a Roman fort. It is also possible that the enclosure could relate to an earlier Iron Age settlement. A possible bank feature is visible situated in between the interior and central ditches of the enclosure. A dense area of linear ditches can be seen around the triple ditched enclosure which most likely relates to settlement features including, boundaries, trackways and possible smaller enclosures. These features are likely to be of Iron-Age to Roman date and may represent multiple phases of settlement. A cluster of possibly aligned pit features can be seen in the north of the area. Across the area a large number of geological cropmarks are also visible, together with post medieval field boundaries which are depicted for the most part on readily accessible historical maps (such as S6); neither have been mapped, but it is possible that amongst the geological cropmarks there are further archaeological features that have not been recognised.
J. Powell (Norfolk Historic Environment Service), 27 October 2021.

Monument Types

  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Unknown date)
  • BOUNDARY (Unknown date)
  • BOUNDARY DITCH (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • DOUBLE DITCHED ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • PIT (Unknown date)
  • SETTLEMENT (Unknown date)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Iron Age - 800 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • BOUNDARY (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • BOUNDARY (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • BOUNDARY (Iron Age - 800 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • BOUNDARY DITCH (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • DOUBLE DITCHED ENCLOSURE (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • ENCLOSURE (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • PIT (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • SETTLEMENT (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • SETTLEMENT (Iron Age - 800 BC? to 42 AD?)
  • TRACKWAY (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC? to 409 AD?)
  • BANK (EARTHWORK) (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • DOUBLE DITCHED ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • FORT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VICUS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TG1424 A-AA,AB-AG (NAU); CPF 54-6 (CUCAP).
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 1424AH - AP, AS - AV, ABG - ABK.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
<S2>Article in Serial: Batcock, N. G. and Edwards, D. 1986. Aerial Reconnaissance in Norfolk and the Chapel of St Nicholas, Itteringham. CBA Group VI Bulletin. No 31 pp 15-21.
<S3>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. ? - 2020. Norfolk Air Photo Library: Oblique Collection. TG1424/K 16-JUL-1986 (NLA 179/DBL 2).
<S4>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Various. ? - 2020. Norfolk Air Photo Library: Oblique Collection. TG1424/AS 26-JUN-1996 (NLA 236/HKD 3).
<S5>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Google Earth. ? - present. Google Earth Orthophotographs. https://earth.google.com/web. 01-JUL-2006 ACCESSED 19-OCT-2021.
<S6>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1885-1891. Ordnance Survey Map. Six inches to the mile. First Edition. 1:10,560.

Related records - none

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