Record Details

NHER Number:1886
Type of record:Monument
Name:Site of medieval Hale's manor, Warham


This is the site of the standing and buried remains of the medieval moated site of Hale's Manor, as well as associated earthworks including fishponds situated alongside a tributory of the River Stiffkey. Extensive but mostly incomplete outlines of the flint and brick 15th century manor on a partly moated platform have been surveyed beside earthwork remains of adjacent moated enclosures. Earthworks of a late medieval or early post medieval formal garden have also been recorded.

Images - none


Grid Reference:TF 9591 4147
Map Sheet:TF94SE

Full description

May 1973.
Surveyed during rapid moat survey.
See (S1) in file.
J. Allen (NLA), 15 August 2001.

Moated enclosure, single, stream fed, rectangular manorial. Interior raised by around 1m. West moat revetted with flint wall on inner face. Walling on interior with pink bricks, probably 15th century. Field to south contains earthworks, ditch enclosures. All under grass.
Recommended for scheduling 1974.
A. Rogerson (NAU).

See file for (S2) for scheduling description.

Ordnance Survey, survey in file.
Information from (S3).
R. J. Rickett (NAU), 4 May 1990

Ordnance Survey aerial photograph 1993 seems to show an enclosure to the east of the scheduled area. This is only very faintly visible on the photocopy in the file, but is clear on the original.
B. Cushion (NLA) and E. Rose (NLA), 20 July 1994.

1995. Earthwork Survey.
Plan at 1:1000 extending site to north into Stiffkey parish and east.
The remains of Hales Manor and immediately adjacent moated enclosures. Further details identified and recorded as well as adjoining ditched enclosures on a terrace to the southeast.
Roman, medieval, post medieval sherds.
Medieval/post medieval roofing tile.
See report (S4) for full details. Site included in (S9) and work also noted in (S10).
B. Cushion (NLA), October 1995.

Schedule extended to include garden earthworks.

5 July 1994. NLA aerial photography.
Earthworks and manor house visible although there is no shadow within crop.
To north a linear feature is a field boundary still marked on Ordnance Survey in 1981.
There are also two linear features and a possible structure, although these are not very distinct.
M. Brennand (NLA), 12 February 2001.

October 2002. Norfolk NMP.
Earthworks, cropmarks and structural remains of mainly medieval date, relating to the site of Hale’s Manor, which are visible on 1946 RAF aerial photographs (S5), Ordnance Survey aerial photographs from 1970 (S6) and NLA oblique aerial photographs from 1992 and 1994 (S7-S8). The site consists of the earthworks previously recorded by Brian Cushion’s earthwork survey in conjunction with additional features noted only from the aerial perspective. Hale’s Manor appears to have been surrounded by a trapezoidal moated enclosure, a series of moated gardens, fishponds and terraced enclosures and meadows along the former course of the stream.

The parchmarks and exposed stonework on the NLA oblique aerial photographs from 1992 (S7) and 1994 (S8) reveal almost the complete plan of the manor house itself, as vegetation has been cleared in different areas in both years. It appears to measuring 33m by 23m and has several ranges of rooms and apartments. It shows greater detail and extent than the 1995 Cushion survey (see secondary file), although some features from the survey could not be detected, suggesting that the two plans are complementary in their scope. Several other parched linears and exposed flint masonry outlines are visible to the south and west of the moated site, within the surrounding earthworks.
The earthworks of the moat reveal an L-shaped earthwork, approximately 3-4m across, although it sits within a wider ditch profile to the west. The moat turns to the north at TF 9571 4169. A broad cropmark, 3.5m wide, running from TF 9577 4167 to TF 9572 4170, can be seen on the 1992 NLA obliques (S7). This may be the northern arm of the moat and would imply an enclosure 60m long. The eastern arm of the moat is also visible as a slight earthwork, running from TF 9576 4163 to TF 9576 4164. To the north of possible northern arm of the moat is a sinuous soilmark visible on the Ordnance Survey aerial photographs (S6). This appears to have parched linear running across it, as suggested by Brian Cushion, this may be a bridge or similar structure. It is likely that this feature represents a former course of the stream channel. This feature and a second sinuous ditch or channel can be seen to continue to the east for over 650m.
To the south of the manor house are a series of fishponds and enclosures. The elongated pond, centred on TF 9572 4161, appears to have the remains of a wall running along it from TF 9572 4163 to TF 9571 4160. This also has a parallel stretch of wall 5m to the west, 10m long. Centred on TF 9571 4156 is a rectilinear enclosed area, defined by a ditch, up to 7.5m wide, and measuring at least 40m by 45m, although it appears to continue to the east of the post-medieval drain, with no definite eastern edge. At TF 9570 4158 is a rectangular stone structure, measuring 8m by 3.5m, set within the enclosure ditch. This is probably a fish storage tank, as suggested by Brian Cushion.
Several areas of surface quarrying are visible, with shallow scoops at TF 9568 4164 and TF 9569 4159. Also centred on TF 9564 4158 is a rectangular raised terrace, measuring approximately 80m by 35m. This may be part of a garden area or of agricultural origin. To the east of this are a series of parallel banks and ditches, running from TF 9565 4153 to TF 9568 4158. The central ditch continues to the south-western corner of the moat at TF 9571 4163. This possibly defines the original approach to the manor.

From TF 9567 4153 to TF 9587 4145 are a series of co-joined raised rectilinear platforms, as recorded in the earthwork survey of the site. The platforms are all defined by ditches. These are all approximately 30m long and between 15m to 30m wide. To the south they are all bounded by a bank, although this appears to be sitting on top of them slightly. Several of the ditches continue underneath it, again suggesting that it may be later. Further examples of these features are visible on the aerial photographs as cropmarks and soilmarks (S5-S8), now levelled, can be seen all this section of the Stiffkey floodplain. The features from TF 9596 4147 to TF 9616 4124 were previously recorded under NHER 1867, but they have now been added to this site, as they appear to be part of the same system of enclosures. These are defined to the east by the two sinuous cropmark ditches or channels, running from TF 9628 4126 to TF 9570 4174. As suggested above these are likely to relate to the courses of old stream channel. It is possible that these series of raised areas are areas of pasture, which may have acted like water meadows, the channels feeding water around them periodically. It seems likely that these fields and enclosures are roughly contemporary with the manor house.
S. Massey (NMP), 15 October 2002.

October 2013. Field Visit.
The site was visited as part of an Environmental Stewardship HLS consultation. When visited the site was still under cultivation therefore no features were visible in the field, however numerous fragments of Roman ceramic building material and pottery were noticed within the cultivated field. Part of the field was subsequently converted to chalk grassland.
K. Powell (HES), 17 April 2015

Monument Types

  • CAUSEWAY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FISH TANK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FISHPOND (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • GARDEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MANOR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOAT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WALL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WATER MEADOW? (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Designation: [unknown]. Ancient Monuments Form. SAM Record. DNF290.
---Archive: National Archaeological Record.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Warham.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Designation: English Heritage. 1990-2013. English Heritage Scheduling Notification. Notification. DNF290.
<S1>Illustration: Rogerson, A. and Mauser, J.. 1973. Rapid Moat Survey Sketch Plan.
<S2>Designation: English Heritage. 1994? -2011?. English Heritage Digital Designation Record. Record. DNF290.
<S3>Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TF 94 SE 20 [7].
<S4>Unpublished Report: Cushion, B. 1995. Warham SMR1886. Earthwork Survey Report.
<S5>Vertical Aerial Photograph: RAF. 1946. RAF 106G/UK/1517 4251-2 07-JUN-1946 (Norfolk SMR TF 9441D, TF 9541B).
<S6>Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1970. OS/70009 005-6 19-MAR-1970.
<S7>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1992. NHER TF 9541A-D (NLA/306/GKK/6-9) 29-JUN-1992.
<S8>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.. 1994. NHER TF 9541E-G (NLA/340/HGM/18-20) 05-JUL-1994.
<S9>Monograph: Cushion, B. and Davison, A. 2003. Earthworks of Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology. No 104. p 129.
<S10>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1996. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1995. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt III pp 397-412. p 410.

Related records

1867Related to: Remains of Roman building and multi-period finds (Monument)

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