Record Details

NHER Number:13004
Type of record:Monument
Name:Cropmarks of a field system

Summary

Cropmarks of a field system, trackways and rectilinear enclosures of probable Roman date are visible on aerial photographs. Some cropmarks previously recorded in the western part of the group under this NHER number are now recorded within NHER 12997.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 4945 1229
Map Sheet:TG41SE
Parish:MAUTBY, GREAT YARMOUTH, NORFOLK

Full description

1977-80.
Cropmarks of old field system askew to present boundaries. Also ring
ditch and trackway?
Located E. Rose 5 January 1978 and 1980.

1995. East of Hall Road.
3 worked flints.
9 Roman sherds (8 grey gritty fabrics, 1 Oxon mortarium).
Ident E.Rose and D.Gurney (NLA).
Comp. D.Gurney (NLA) 4 April 1995.

October 2005. Norfolk NMP.
Cropmarks of a field system, trackways and rectilinear enclosures of probable Roman date are visible on aerial photographs (S1-S5). The central grid reference for these cropmarks has been amended from TG 4885 1235 to TG 4935 1230. Some cropmarks previously recorded in the western part of the group under this HER number are now recorded within NHER 12997.

The fields and enclosures in this group of cropmarks are aligned on a northnorthwest to southsoutheast axis. They cropmarks of the field system show that several different phases of closely related activity are present. A roughly rectangular enclosure is centred on TG 4920 1332. It is defined by a single ditch up to 3.5m wide and measures 157m by 108m externally. Internally the enclosure is divided into three or possibly four separate areas by narrow ditches. The enclosure is split into two halves by a northnorthwest to southsoutheast ditch. The western half is further divided into two areas measuring 70m by 58m and 72m by 47m. The eastern part of the enclosure measures 100m by 81m. It is crossed by a westsouthwest to eastnortheast aligned ditch. Although this ditch could represent a division of the enclosure it continues further to the east and is probably a field boundary that is not contemporary with the enclosure. A 12m wide break is present in the ditch on the south side of the enclosure and it could mark an entrance. A definite 2m wide entrance is present centrally on the northern side of the enclosure. The eastern part of the northern ditch of the enclosure turns towards the north at this point and continues into the adjoining enclosure. It crosses another ditch defining a trackway along the western part of the northern side of the enclosure. This trackway turns into the enclosure and suggests that the entrance may have been up to 9m wide originally. The western end of this trackway joins a northnorthwest to southsoutheast trackway that runs along the eastern side of the enclosure for at least 110m between TG 4911 1239 and TG 4912 1228. Attached to the northern side of this enclosure is another rectilinear enclosure, that measures up to 153m by 124m. The full internal plan of this enclosure is not clear but its southern part appears to be divided into two halves measuring 65m and 70m wide. A section of linear ditch aligned parallel to and north of this enclosure may form part of a trackway along its northern side. Parallel ditches on the same alignment further to the east show that this trackway may extend for at least 455m from TG 4901 1248 to TG 4946 1256.

Surrounding this enclosure are sections of linear ditches on the same alignment. These form field boundaries and incomplete fields. To the west of the enclosures adjoining the trackway are at least three fields. The most complete of these is centred on TG 4907 1213 and measures 124m by 60m. Ditches on the same alignment as the field system are present to the north of the enclosures but no complete fields are visible in this area. The main area of the field system lies to the east and southeast of these enclosures. The plan of the field system to the southeast of the enclosures includes elements from several different phases creating a more irregular plan. It includes a curvilinear trackway and associated enclosures. The trackway extends for 400m on a curving course between TG 4921 1206 and TG 4961 1212. Adjoining its northern side is a triangular curvilinear enclosure centred on TG 4946 1213. This enclosure measures 164m long and 64m wide. A 35m by 30m rectilinear enclosure is located adjacent to the trackway immediately to its east. It is possible that these enclosures are linked into the main rectilinear field system. A trapezoidal field within the field system is centred on TG 4941 1215 and measures up to 136m by 100m.

A second rectilinear enclosure is centred on TG 4949 1213 in the southern part of the group of cropmarks and appears to overlie part of the field system. It has a parallelogram shaped plan and measures up to 137m by 116m externally. The ditch that defines the enclosure varies in width from 1m to 4m and contains three breaks that appear to represent entrances. The first of these is located centrally on the north side of the enclosure and measures 2.5m across. The second, which is only 1m wide, lies in the middle of the east side and is marked by out-turned ditch terminals. The third entrance is on the western side and is also only 1m wide. It is not clear if a break in the ditch at the southeast corner of the enclosure may represent a fourth entrance. The ditch along its south side continues to the eastnortheast and appears to form part of the field system. Inside the enclosure a section of narrow ditch is aligned parallel to its northern side. It is possible that this is part of a double ditch that ran inside the broad ditch. However, a similar ditch that runs parallel to the western side of the enclosure appears to be a field boundary and continues further to the north and south. This suggests that the enclosure may belong to a slightly later phase of activity than the main field system. To the east of this enclosure is another part of the field system centred on TG 4974 1226. Although none of the fields are complete it is possible to determine that some of them measure 64m by 54m, 33m by at least 86m and 29m by at least 70m.

It is likely that this field system and rectilinear enclosures are of Roman, or possible Iron Age to Roman, date. A small quantity of Roman pottery has previously been found in the general area of the rectilinear enclosures. It is possible that the adjoining rectilinear enclosures in the northwest part of the group may relate to a farmstead of Iron Age to Roman date.

A curvilinear ditch is present in the northern part of this group of cropmarks. It extends for 530m on a curving west to east alignment between TG 4899 1270 and TG 4946 1259. The alignment of this ditch does not correspond to the field system. However, it is possible that it forms a northern limit along a boundary that may have already existed. The alignment of this ditch does not obviously relate to the probable Bronze Age field system present further to its north and west (NHER 12997). Other isolated sections of linear ditch are present across the area of the field system. It is possible that some of these are also of Bronze Age, as well as medieval to post medieval, date.
J. Albone (NMP), 20 October 2005

Monument Types

  • CURVILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • FIELD (Unknown date)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Unknown date)
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • CURVILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • TRACKWAY (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • FIELD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Associated Finds

  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
<S1>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1976. NHER TG 4912D (NLA 31/AFS20) 08-JUL-1976.
<S2>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1976. NHER TG 4912E (NLA 31/AFT12) 08-JUL-1976.
<S3>Oblique Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1976. CUCAP BYZ3 03-JUL-1976.
<S4>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1970. OS/70315 056-7 11-SEP-1970.
<S5>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1970. OS/70351 156-7 20-SEP-1970.

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