Record Details

NHER Number:10595
Type of record:Monument
Name:Roman cemetery and kiln


A pottery kiln was found in 1858, probably of Roman date, and later used as a lime kiln. Almost exactly a century later, five Roman cremation urns with burnt human remains were discovered a short distance away, and probably formed part of a cemetery.

Images - none


Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TM39SW

Full description

1858. West side of Bungay Road opposite brickyard. Context 1 at 3021 9323.
Kiln found, mouth 2.3m (7 feet 6 inches) in diameter; 0.9m (3 feet) down, 1.5m (5 feet) diameter. Had a shelf 33cm (13 inches) wide on which pots were placed; floor 1.2m (4 feet) below shelf. Stokehole on west side. Used for pottery and later for lime.
?Post Roman lime kiln.
R.R. Clark (NCM).

22.8m (25 yard) away.
Five cinerary urns with calcined bones within found arranged in quincunx 1.5m (5 feet) apart. Best urn 23cm (9 inches) high and 17.7cm (7 inches) in diameter at widest point. Norwich Museum Catalogue of Antiquities illustration No.348.
Another urn 15cm (6 inches) high and 30cm (12 inches) in diameter.
Roman cemetery. No trace of pottery on site.
Date ?early 3rd century.
R.R. Clarke (NCM), 16 October 1953.

See (S1) (illustration), (S2) (reference to wasters, not found elsewhere), (S3), (S4), (S5), (S6) (Grimes Type IV), (S7).
Called 'Late Celtic' in (S8) but late 1st to early 2nd century A.D. date; slightly splayed base, general shape and moulding suggest Belgic influence.
R.R. Clarke (NCM).

June 2006. Norfolk NMP
Examination of aerial photographs for the Norfolk National Mapping Programme revealed irregular soilmarks and cropmarks at this location (S9-10). These relate to post medieval quarrying and were not mapped. The ground level has been significantly lowered by clay extraction for the adjacent brickworks (NHER 13642). It is possible that this extraction dates to the mid-nineteenth century when the Roman pottery kiln was discovered. Due to the significant amount of disturbance that appears to have occurred across the whole field, it is unlikely that any Roman remains survive in situ.
J. Albone (NMP), 12 June 2006.

Monument Types

  • CREMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LIME KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • LIME KILN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • HUMAN REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • KILN WASTE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TM 39 SW 4 [3].
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Record Card: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Hedenham.
<S1>Article in Serial: King, S. W. 1864. Notes on a Roman Kiln and Urns, Found at Hedenham, near Bungay. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol VI pp 149-160.
<S2>Monograph: 1901. The Victoria History of Norfolk. The Victoria History of the Counties of England. Vol 1. pp 317-318.
<S3>Serial: 1861. Archaeological Journal. Vol.18, pp46, 361, 374.
<S4>Article in Serial: 1863. Meetings of the Institute. Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. Vol III pp 394-421. p 414.
<S5>Article in Serial: [anonymous]. 1859. [proceedings of meeting held Thursday, May 13th, 1858]. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London. First Series Vol IV pp 200-202. p 201.
<S6>Article in Serial: [unknown]. Y.Cymmrodor. Vol XLI, no 57.
<S7>Article in Serial: 1957. The structure of Romano-British pottery kilns. The Archaeological Journal. Vol CXIV pp 10-27. p 20.
<S8>Monograph: 1917. Glastonbury Lake Village.. Vol II, p 498. p 498.
<S9>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Ordnance Survey. 1967. OS/67056 147-8 24-APR-1967 (NMR).
<S10>Vertical Aerial Photograph: Meridian Airmaps Limited. 1965. MAL/65033 118-9 26-APR-1965 (NMR).

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