Record Details

NHER Number:6033
Type of record:Monument
Name:Late Neolithic, Saxon and medieval site, Harling

Summary

A very important hoard of Middle Saxon silver coins of the King Beonna discovered here by a metal detectorist led to the excavation of the Middle Saxon to medieval rural settlement of Middle Harling. During the excavation a complex sequence of occupation was uncovered. Several Late Neolithic pit groups were recorded and over 4000 fragments of worked flint were found. No evidence for Roman or Early Saxon activity was recovered. The hoard was buried in the outskirts of a Middle Saxon to medieval settlement. The extent of this occupation is known from a surface scatter of finds. A 9th or 10th century Viking burial was also recorded. This is one of a very small number of inhumations of this date known in in East Anglia. In the post medieval period thirty nine bone pits were dug in the northwest part of the site.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TL98NE
Parish:HARLING, BRECKLAND, NORFOLK

Full description

Site of Middle Harling village and church.

1980. Fieldwalking by NARG.
Roman, Middle Saxon, Late Saxon, medieval pottery and metalwork.

November 1980. Metal-detecting.
Discovered by A. Frost in plough-soil an important dispersed coin hoard of the mid-8th century East Anglian king Beonna, eight silver coins had been found in total.
See (S1) for further information.

February-March 1981. Excavation and metal-detecting.
Carried out with A. Frost in order to identify the context in which the previous eight middle Saxon coins had been found. Producing a further twenty-eight Beonna coins along with seven sceat. Layer 1 also produced pottery and finds of prehistoric (S3), Middle and Late Saxon dates (S4). In layer 2 at a depth of 0.4 meters one coin was recorded followed by seventeen more. Layer 2 overlay was cut by a small rubbish pit which contained Late Saxon materal. Other features included a shallow ditch which ran north to south and was of unknown date, and also a number of posthole, some of which contained Late Saxon pottery. None of these features contained coins.
See (S1) and (S2) for further information.
M. Langham-Lopez (HES), 17 June 2013.

1982-1983. Excavation.
Evidence of Late Neolithic occupation associated with flint knapping, in the north-west part of the site a group of four features produced struck flint and also Fengate ware. There is little evidence for any later prehistoric activity in or near the excavation area, however, a Late Bronze Age awl and a contemporary forgery of an Iron Age starter was found near the surface south-west of the excavation.
There is no evidence of Roman occupation in this area, however, twenty fragments of pottery tile and sixty-three sherds of pottery were recovered along with six Roman coins from the 1st to 4th centuries.
There are no features that relate the early Saxon period; however, a buckle was discovered in a post-medieval context. 160 meters south-west-south of the excavation site at TL9785, there was part of an early small long brooch of this period recovered .
Further excavation uncovered few features from the middle Saxon period, however late Saxon occupation was fairly intense. There were two buildings, one having post-in-slot construction and the other with walls which was represented by individual postholes which was of a 10th century date.
A small area of the graveyard of St Andrews church fell into the area of excavation, one dated to the late 9th or the early 10th century period which was accompanied by a bronze buckle, hone stone, iron knives and an iron strike-a-light. Most of the other burials that were recorded were from the medievalperiod.
Occupation seems to continue into the medieval period from the 11th to 13th century evidence of a settlement site include surface finds of pottery, metalwork and coins which were situated to the north-west of theexcavation site. A complex of ditches and at least one timber building which dates to the late 11th and 12th century were also recorded, occupation within the area of excavation seemed to cease in the early 13th century.
Into the post-medieval period of the site, thirty-nine pits which contained disarticulated human bones were recorded, mainly in the north-west area of the site.
General metal-detecting in this area produced a fairly large collection of finds, the majority of which were located in the topsoil, the date of these finds were middle Saxon to the medieval period. Examples include a silver seal matrix enclosing an antique intaglio and a part of a pendant cross with 9th-century interlace decoration and a plaque decorated in Ringerike style.
Pottery from this site included middle Saxon, which was all Ipswich-type ware apart from two sherds of Tating ware. Saxo-Norman pottery comprised of Thetford-type, St Neot's and early medieval wares.
See (S1) and (S2) for further information.
M. Langham-Lopez (HES), 17 June 2013.


1986 to 1988. Metal detecting.
Further Roman and medieval metalwork.
See full details in file.
E. Rose (NAU), 14 March 1990.

October/November 2003. Metal detecting.
One Roman coin.
Iron Age/Roman brooch.
Post medieval buckle.
See list in file with grid references.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 26 February 2004.

Monument Types

  • HEARTH (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • DITCH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • BUILDING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DITCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • HEARTH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUILDING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CEMETERY (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CHURCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DESERTED SETTLEMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PIT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CHALK PIT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PIT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • CRUCIBLE (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • MOULD (Undated)
  • QUERN (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Undated)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SAW (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANSVERSE ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • AWL (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • BROOCH (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • PIN (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • POT (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BOX (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • COIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • KNIFE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • NAIL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • PIN (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPEAR (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SPUR (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • TWEEZERS (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ARROWHEAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • AWL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BALANCE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CHISEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CRUCIFIX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DOOR FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FLESH HOOK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • LOOMWEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MORTAR (VESSEL) (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • NEEDLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PADLOCK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PLOUGH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PUNCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • RING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SAW (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SEAL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SHEARS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPEAR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPUR (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRIKE A LIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STUD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TEXTILE EQUIPMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WHETSTONE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WRITING AND DRAWING EQUIPMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • VESSEL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). TL 9785B,E-N,P-S,W-Z,AC-AK,AW,AM.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1983. Coins are Treasure Trove. 27 July.
---Article in serial: Ashley, S., Penn, K. and Rogerson, A. 1991. A Further Group of Late Saxon Mounts from Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt II pp 225-229.
---Publication: Batcock, N. 1991. The Ruined and Disused Churches of Norfolk. East Anglian Archaeology, 51. Microfiche 5:G12.
---Serial: Blomefield, F.. 1805. An Essay Towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk.. Vol I.
---Map: Finder's Map..
---Unpublished document: Norfolk Archaeological Research Group Field Recording Sheet.
---Unpublished document: Archibald, M.. 1981. Middle Harling Hoard. 22 October.
---Unpublished document: Archibald, M.. 1983. Middle Harling Hoard (2nd Portion). 30 July.
---Article in serial: 1982. Treasure Hunting. July.
---Serial: British Museum Society Bulletin..
---Newspaper Article: 1983. Eastern Daily Press. 27 July.
---Publication: Frere MSS. NRO DS594 352x3.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Article in serial: Garrow, D. 2007. Placing Pits: Landscape Occupation and Depositional Practice During the Neolithic in East Anglia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Vol 73 pp 1-24.
---Photograph: CMC 33-5, CKM 8-10, CKM 26-7, CRF, CRG, CVG.
<S1>Monograph: Rogerson, A.. 1995. Late Neolithic, Saxon and Medieval Site at Middle Harling.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 74.
<S2>Article in serial: Youngs, S. M., Clark, J. and Barry, T. 1984. Medieval Britain and Ireland in 1983. Medieval Archaeology. Vol XXVIII pp 203-265. p234.
<S3>Illustration: Unknown. 1981. Drawing of a Neolithic axe fragment.. paper. 1:1.
<S4>Illustration: Penn, K. 1981. Drawing of a Late Saxon mount.. Film. 2:1.

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