Record Details

NHER Number:11071
Type of record:Monument
Name:Site of Roman settlement and pottery kilns

Summary

Gravel extraction during the early part of the 20th century recovered Mesolithic worked flints and a complete Neolithic vessel containing a cremation and a large Bronze Age pot in fragments. The site is most well known, however, for its Roman remains. These were first identified in 1921 and were excavated in the 1930s. These excavations revealed the presence of three Roman pottery kilns, a hearth and several ditches. These features and accompanying Roman finds have been interpreted as a small Roman settlement.

Images

  • A complete Neolithic vessel from Needham  © Norfolk County Council
  • The excavation of a Roman pottery kiln at Needham  © Norfolk County Council

Location

Grid Reference:TM 234 820
Map Sheet:TM28SW
Parish:NEEDHAM, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1921.
Roman kiln found.

1927.
Roman and medieval sherds found.

1937 to 1939. Excavation.
Roman kilns and settlement.

1939. Excavation.
Roman kilns and settlement.

1939.
Neolithic and Bronze Age pottery and cremation found.
See (S1).

1939 to 1940. Stray Find.
Around this time a number of prehistoric worked flints were recovered from the site. It is noted in (S2) that a number of the flakes found were associated with a Mesolithic microlithic industry, as well as a micro-burin and a "typical core". The presence of Mesolithic material was confirmed by Dr. G. Clarke, who examined all of the flints recovered from the site. These flints were amongst the material that was given to the Norwich Castle Museum (presumably NWHCM : 1942.15.bulk). This collection is listed by (S3) as comprising microliths, 2 micro-burins, 1 broken blade with a blunted point, 1 notched flake and 1 core. This collection is noted in (S4), which also lists a Mesolithic adze/axe as being amongst the material held by the NCM.

According to (S1) a Neolithic/Bronze Age scraper was also found around this time.

The Norwich Castle Museum now also holds a Mesolithic single-platform blade core that was donated by Frere in 2008 (NWHCM : 2008.199). This was apparently found during the 1940s and the recorded grid reference indicates that it had come from this site.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 7 January 2014.

1942.
Bronze Age and Iron Age sherds found.

1958.
Roman sherds found.

1983.
Roman sherds found.

1987.
Roman sherds found.

1997/8.
Roman, medieval sherds. Neolithic axe found.
E. Rose (NLA), 12 February 1998.

Monument Types

  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • CREMATION (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HEARTH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POTTERY KILN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POTTERY WORKS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROBURIN (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • NOTCHED FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN MOULD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Article in Serial: Clarke, R. R. and Moore, I. E. 1937. The Roman Villages at Brettenham and Needham and the Contemporary Road System. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXVI Pt II pp 123-163.
---Illustration: Finds Illustrations.
---Archive: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Correspondence: Various. Needham pottery production site and finds.
---Photograph: Ashley, H.. CM838 Needham food vessel.
---Photograph: Ashley, H.. 1937. Kilns at Needham.
---Unpublished Document: Cave, A.J.E.. 1935. On cranial fragments from Needham, South Norfolk.
---Article in Serial: Frere, S.S.. 1941. A Claudian Site at Needham.. The Antiquaries Journal. Vol XXI, No 1, pp 40-55.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Bronze Age. Needham [3].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Needham [2].
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Medieval. Needham [2].
---Monograph: Swan, V. G.. 1984. The Pottery Kilns of Roman Britain. Royal Commission on Historical Monuments Supplementary Series. 5.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Article in Serial: Frere, S.S.. 1940. A food vessel from Needham, Norfolk.. The Antiquaries Journal. Vol XX, No 2, pp 272-274.
<S2>Article in Serial: Frere, S. S. and Clarke, R. R. 1945. The Romano-British Village at Needham, Norfolk. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXVIII Pt IV 187-216.
<S3>Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Mesolithic.
<S4>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 10306.

Related records - none

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