Record Details

NHER Number:8929
Type of record:Building
Name:Wicklewood Mill

Summary

A four-storey tarred brick battered tower windmill with cap constructed around 1845. The mill is believed to have been built with cloth sails which were later replaced with four double-shuttered patent sails. It was occupied by tenant millers until 1906 and grist milling continued on the premises until 1942. The mill was listed in 1951 but had fallen into disrepair by the 1970's. The Norfolk Windmills Trust began restoration of the mill in 1977, which to date has included replacing the doors, windows, timber floors and many main beams, refurbishment and replacement of the interior cap and fantail, two sessions of work on the stock and sails, and reinstallation of the original paraffin engine first installed in 1922. Much of the original machinery and other fixtures have been retained.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 0763 0264
Map Sheet:TG00SE
Parish:WICKLEWOOD, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Wicklewood Mill.
A four-storey tarred brick battered tower windmill with cap. The exact construction date remains uncertain, but it is first mentioned in a Tithe Award of 1845 and a miller, John Browning Mallett, is listed in Kelly's Norfolk Directory for 1846. The mill initially produced flour, and documentary research has confirmed several tenant millers associated with the building: William Palmer (miller ca. 1875), James Doughty (sometime after 1878), William Vout (1897-1902), and Walter Farrow (1904). The mill was purchased by William Wade in 1906 (S1) and his son, Mr. Denis Wade, worked at the mill from 1908 (age 14) to 1942, when the mill ceased production. During this time the Wade's carried out grist milling for local farmers. See (S1) for publication of the sale particulars as given in 1906.
Information from (S1).

Architectural Features:
The mill is alternatively described as five-storey or four-storey with cap and is constructed of tarred brick. It is believed to have been constructed with cloth sails which were later replaced with four double-shuttered patent sails. See (S1) for a full description.

Known 20th century changes to the mill include the following:
In 1911 the wooden head wheel was replaced by an iron wheel (S2). The Iron wheel may have originally come from a tower mill at Silfield (S2).
In 1922 a paraffin engine which was installed to power the mill when there was insufficient wind to power the sails (S3).

History following cessation of production:
The mill was listed in 1951 (S4) and in 1977 was transferred into the care of the Norfolk Windmills Trust for restoration. A detailed survey of the mill and its outbuildings was undertaken at this time and derelict granaries and stables were subsequently demolished (S1). Restoration has been on-going since 1977 and has included replacing the doors, windows, timber floors and many main beams, refurbishment and replacement of the interior cap and fantail, two sessions of work on the stock and sails, and reinstallation of the original paraffin engine first installed in 1922. Much of the original machinery and other fixtures have been retained. See discussion below for further details of the restoration work.

See (S5) and (S6) for press articles relating to restoration work between 1980 and 1982.
See (S7) for photographs of the mill published in the Eastern Daily Press between 1984 and 1988, following restoration.
See (S8) for architects drawings (pre 1992).
Mentioned in Pevsner's Buidling of England Publication (S9).
See NHER 61971 for details of Mill House (previously recorded under this number).
H. Hamilton (HES), 15 March 2017.

October 1951. Listed Grade II.
Listing Description:
Windmill. Circa 1840. Tarred brick battered tower. 4 storeys with cap. Small pivot windows with glazing bars of c.1980. Sails, cap, fantail, floors and machinery of c.1980 in careful imitation of original. Included for group value.
See (S4) for further details.
H. Hamilton (HES), 15 March 2017.

December 1978. Field Observation.
Tall derelict brick tower mill with ruined cap but all four stocks remaining, and brake wheel, with traces of frame for fantail.
E. Rose (NAU), 6 December 1978.

1977-1982. Restoration work by the Norfolk Windmills Trust and Norfolk County Council.
The Norfolk Windmills Trust launched a public appeal for funds to restore the mill in 1977.
Work began on the mill in 1978, starting with the interior and replacing the timber floors and many main beams. Much of the original machinery and other fixtures have been retained. The doors and windows were replaced.
The windshaft and cap frame were removed for restoration on 10 October 1979.
A curb and track was lifted into place on 18 January 1980.
A new interior cap and fantail was set in place on 12 November 1980.
A new stock and sails were fixed in place on 07 May 03 July 1981.
Information from newspaper articles (S5).
See newspaper article (S6) for photograph and additional details of fundraising by the Friends of Norfolk Mills.
E. Rose (NAU) 20 June 1984. Updated H. Hamilton (HES), 15 March 2017.

Details revealed during restoration.
Researcher H. Apling observed 'swellings' on the windshaft which indicate that this may have come from a post mill. However the millwright who restored mill, states that 'works' (including windshaft?) came from tower mill at Silfield in 1911.
The millstone is a Peak stone unusual for Norfolk.
E. Rose (NAU) 20 June 1984. Updated. E. Rose (NAU) 8 February 1985.

1988. Additional restoration work by the Norfolk Windmills Trust.
See newspaper article (S10) for photograph of grandchildren of the last millwright to operate Wicklewood Mill.
No further details of ongoing restoration work provided.
H. Hamilton (HES), 15 March 2017.

2003. Restoration work by the Norfolk Windmills Trust and Norfolk County Council.
A paraffin engine which was installed in Wicklewood Mill in 1922 (to power the mill when there was insufficient wind to power the sails) and was sold by the last miller in 1972 was tracked down by Michael Knights (NCC) and was reinstalled at Wicklewood on 28 March 2003.
Information from (S3).
E. Rose (NLA) 28 March 2003. Updated H. Hamilton (HES), 15 March 2017.

2005-2006. Additional restoration work by the Norfolk Windmills Trust.
The mill cap and sails were removed for additional works in 2005. The steel stocks which currently carry the sails are to be replaced with wooden ones more in keeping with the original structure.
The cap was replaced on 21 July 2006.
Information from (S11).
H. Hamilton (HES), 15 March 2017.

2012. Additional restoration work by the Norfolk Windmills Trust.
The sails that were removed for restoration in 2005 were reinstalled on 23 October 2012.
The initial work of shaping the new stocks and repairing and maing the sails was carried out by R.H. Thompson and Sons of Lincolnshire and the final repair and painting was carried out by the Norfolk Millwright Alliance.
Additional internal work is still required for the mill to be fully functional.
Information from (S12).
M Langham-Lopez (HES), 05 November 2012. Updated H. Hamilton (HES), 15 March 2017.

Monument Types

  • WINDMILL (19th Century to 21st Century - 1845 AD to 2100 AD)

Associated Finds - none

Protected Status

  • SHINE
  • Listed Building

Sources and further reading

---Record Card: Ordnance Survey Staff. 1933-1979?. Ordnance Survey Record Cards. TG 00 SE M.
---Record Card: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary File.
<S1>Monograph: Apling, H.. 1984. Norfolk Corn Windmills. Vol I. pp 37-41.
<S2>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1980. Frightening for spiders. 15 November.
<S3>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2003. Mill engine coming home. 27 March.
<S4>Designation: English Heritage. National Heritage List for England. List Entry 1050725.
<S5>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1977-1981. [Articles on the restoration of Wicklewood Mill].
<S6>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1982. Windmill help. 17 May.
<S7>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1984-1988. [Photographs of Wicklewood Mill].
<S8>*Rolled Plan: Large Plan Exists.
<S9>Monograph: Pevsner, N and Wilson, W. 1999. Norfolk 2: North-West and South. The Buildings of England. 2nd Edition. p 777.
<S10>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1988. Mill under restoration. 13 August.
<S11>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2006. Mill gets its cap back after year of renovation. 22 July.
<S12>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2012. Historic mill a step closer to completer restoration. 24 October.

Related records

61971Related to: Mill House, Nos. 51 and 53 High Street, Wicklewood (Building)

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