Record Details

NHER Number:8897
Type of record:Monument
Name:Surface finds from the area surrounding Crownthorpe Roman temple

Summary

A huge number of finds have been recorded from this site including hundreds of Roman coins, Roman jewellery and cosmetic items, a Roman cockerel figurine, medieval and post medieval coins, jettons and objects. Mesolithic flints and prehistoric pottery, as well as Iron Age coins and a brooch have also been recovered. Metal-detecting in 2010 recovered a medieval buckle. Cropmarks from this field indicate the presence of a Roman temple (now recorded as NHER 54693) and road (NHER 19725), as well as other features which may or may not be related. The temple has been extensively investigated since the 1960s through excavations, fieldwalking surveys and metal detecting.

Images

  • A copper alloy Roman cosmetic pestle from the Roman temple site at Wicklewood. The handle is in the shape of a duck.  © Norfolk Museums & Archaeology Service. NWHCM 1983.43.9:A

Location

Grid Reference:Not displayed
Map Sheet:TG00SE
Parish:WICKLEWOOD, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Roman temple site. Visible as cropmark.
1959. Part excavation
1960+. Surface finds of worked flints, Iron Age, Roman, Late Saxon and medieval metalwork.
1991. Cropmark of ring ditch.
For full details see list in file.

December 1991. Field observation.
Top stone of puddingstone quern.
See sketch drawing in file.
W. Milligan (NCM) 15 September 1995.

Spring 1992.
Second century enamelled brooch, plate umbonate type, see for comparison Hattatt 128. 1996.10.
See sketch in file.
W. Milligan (NCM) 25 November 1993.

May 1992. Fieldwalking.
Possible Iron Age sherd (flint gritted). Find held by NCM.
W. Milligan (NCM) 21 March 1996.

7 May 1992.
2nd to 3rd century denarius of Septimus Severus.
See coin list in file.
W. Milligan (NCM) 2 July 1992.

29 June 1993. NLA aerial photography.
Temple site cropmarks extremely vivid. Stretches of the rectilinear enclosure can also be seen on [1].
S. Massey (NLA) 30 January 2001.

6 August 1993. NLA Air photography.
Cropmark of temple cannot be clearly seen, but there appears to be a semi-circular lighter (slightly parched) area in the crop adjacent to the road (may not be archaeological?).
H. Clare (NLA) 5 February 2001.

10 November 1993. Metal detecting.
Unclassified 2nd century brooch in southeast corner of field.
W. Milligan (NCM) 1 December 1993.

October 1994.
Seven 3rd to 4th century coins.
See list in file.
W. Milligan (NCM) 1994.

September 1995. Metal detecting in area south of temple.
Unidentified gilded object.
W. Milligan (NCM) 1995.

14 June 1996. NLA aerial photography.
Parchmarks of temple showing exceptionally well, to north of which is a semi-circular parchmark, coming off from the modern road. It appears to be a road. It is not clear whether it relates to the temple or not, the fact that it joins the modern one is suspicious.
To the south of the temple are a series of ditches, these may be field boundaries, although four of them are parallel and lead to the temple site. This may be a trackway with multiple ditches.
S. Massey (NLA) 8 August 2001.

8 July 1996. NLA aerial photography.
Cropmarks of temple site still visible.
Also the lighter semi-circular area in the crop can still be seen.
H. Clare (NLA) 25 September 2001.

March 1997. Location [2].
Five Roman coins.
One Roman copper alloy stud.
W. Milligan (NCM), 1997.

September 1998. Metal detecting.
Two 1st to 2nd century coins.
Tiny medieval oval buckle frame with offset narrowed bar. Outer edge is thickened with protruding knops at corners and has a moulding either side of pin rest. Crude large pin of different alloy. 12th - 14th century.
W. Milligan (NCM) 1998.

July-August 1999. Metal detecting.
One hundred and three Roman coins. See lists in file.
Post medieval jettons.
Roman brooch and cockerel figurine.
Medieval and post medieval metal finds.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 1 October 1999.

October 2000. Metal detecting.
One hundred and nine Roman, one medieval, one post medieval coins.
Two post medieval jettons and three tokens.
See sheets in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 5 November 2000.

October 2000. Metal detecting.
Twelve Roman coins.
Post medieval jetton.
Roman and post medieval metal finds.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 30 November 2000.

September 2001. Metal detecting.
Thirty-eight Roman coins.
Two medieval coins.
Three post medieval coins.
Iron Age, Roman, Late Saxon, medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 13 December 2001.

December 2002. Metal detecting.
Roman terret.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 15 Februsry 2003.

January 2003. Sheduled area revised.
See scheduling document for full details.
M. Horlock (NLA) 26 August 2003.

January - February 2003. Metal detecting.
Two Iron Age and four Roman coins.
Two medieval metal objects.
See lists in file with NGRs.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 7 March 2003.

September - October 2003. Metal detecting.
Twenty-five Roman coins. One post medieval coin.
One post medieval jetton.
Medieval, post medieval and undated metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 8 November 2003.

September 2003. Metal detecting in three areas.
Five Roman coins.
Medieval jetton.
Roman and medieval/post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 26 March 2004.

October - November 2003. Metal detecting.
Fifteen Roman and one post medieval coins.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 5 December 2003.

August - September 2004. Metal detecting.
Nineteen Roman coins.
Post medieval belt mount.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 6 October 2004.

September - October 2004. Metal detecting.
Sixty-seven Roman coins.
Roman, Late Saxon, medieval, post medieval and undatable metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 8 November 2004.

October - November 2004. Metal detecting.
Thirty-four Roman and one medieval coins.
Possible medieval token.
Roman, post medieval and undatable metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 13 December 2004.

August -September 2005. Metal detecting.
Thirty two Roman and one medieval coins.
Medieval buckle.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 7 October 2005.

September - October 2005. Metal detecting.
Twenty-three Roman coins.
Roman, medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 14 November 2005.

August - September 2006. Metal detecting.
Eight Roman coins and a medieval jetton.
Post medieval and undatable metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 5 October 2006.

September - October 2006. Metal detecting.
Twenty-four Roman and one medieval coins.
Post medieval jetton.
Roman and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 7 November 2006.

February - March 2008. Metal detecting.
118 Roman and 3 post medieval coins, Romano-British, medieval, post medieval and undatable metal objects and 1 post medieval jetton.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 12 April 2008.

March - April 2008. Metal detecting.
32 Roman and 1 post medieval coin, Iron Age/RB, Romano-British and undatable metal objects, post medieval jetton.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 9 May 2008.

28 September 2010. Metal-detecting.
Medieval buckle.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 8 December 2010.

March 2012. Norfolk NMP.
The cropmarks described above are now recorded separately as follows: NHER 54692 – the ring ditch; NHER 54693 – the Roman temple; NHER 19725 – the Roman road; NHER 54694 – possibly Roman linear boundaries (including, probably, the ‘rectilinear enclosure’ and possible multi-ditched trackway mentioned above); NHER 54695 – the various other ditches and boundaries visible in the vicinity, most of which are of probable medieval to post medieval date. These have been recorded separately to reflect the fact that not all of the cropmarks are related, instead reflecting several phases of activity, and to distinguish them from the surface finds recovered from the area, not all of which necessarily relate to the cropmarks. The semi-circular cropmark mentioned several times above (once as a possible road) relates to a former pit or quarry of recent origin (NHER 36337) and has not been mapped.
S. Tremlett (NMP), 15 March 2012.

Monument Types

  • LINEAR FEATURE (Unknown date)
  • ROAD (Unknown date)
  • TRACKWAY (Unknown date)
  • BURNT MOUND (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • RECTANGULAR ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TEMPLE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WALL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • CASTING WASTE (Unknown date)
  • INGOT (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Undated)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • RING (Unknown date)
  • WEIGHT (Unknown date)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • END SCRAPER (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • RETOUCHED BLADE? (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • POT (Late Prehistoric - 4000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Iron Age to Roman - 800 BC to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • COIN HOARD (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BRACELET (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • EAR RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIGURINE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HAIR PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HARNESS FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • HOARD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PALETTE (COSMETIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • QUERN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPATULA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SPOON (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STEELYARD WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STUD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • VESSEL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BRIDLE BIT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUTTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • JETTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • NAIL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOKEN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • VESSEL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BELL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CLOTH SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • DRESS FASTENER (DRESS) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FERRULE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JETTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • JEWS HARP (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LOCKING MECHANISM (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PENDANT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SEAL (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPOON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPUR (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SWORD BELT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE
  • Scheduled Monument

Sources and further reading

---Photograph: XV1 to XX111.
---Aerial Photograph: RAF. RAF 58-6667 print 0049; TG0802 A-E,P-T,W-Z,AA-AF.
---Aerial Photograph: TG0802/ AN-AQ.
---Aerial Photograph: TG 08 02 AG-AM, AR-AU.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 0802AZ - ABC.
---Photograph: NLA. Finds Photograph.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 0803J - K; TG 0802ABD - ABE.
---Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 0802AV - AY.
---Photograph: I & RS. Digital finds image.
---Photograph: I&RS. Finds Polaroid. Polaroid.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Publication: Hattatt, R.. 1982. Ancient and Romano-British Brooches. 1.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 2010. Object lessons in Norfolk's rich heritage. 29 May.
---Photograph: 1999. KSN 18-19, Romano British bronze cockerel figurine..
---Photograph: 2001. KSZ 29, Early Saxon brooch fragment..
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Wicklewood.
---Article in serial: 1960. Other Archaeological Excavations 1959. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 12 (for 1959) p 2.
---Article in serial: Clarke, R. R. 1960. Stone Implement Petrology. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 12 (for 1959) pp 2-3.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
---Illustration: Woollestone, D.G. (NCM). Unknown. Drawing of nine Roman , medieval and post-medieval finds.. Paper. Unknown.
---Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1959. Wymondham Roman Temple Puzzle. 13 November.
<S1>Newspaper Article: Eastern Daily Press. 1985. Roman road and base discovered. 13 September.
<S2>Article in serial: 1960. Journal of Roman Studies. Vol L, p 278.
<S3>Article in serial: Trett, R. 1983. Roman Bronze 'Grooved Pendants' from East Anglia. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XXXVIII Pt III pp 219-234. pp 229, 232.

Related records

19725Related to: Line of Roman road between Caistor St Edmund and Crownthorpe principally visible as earthworks, soilmarks and cropmarks on aerial photographs (Monument)
54693Related to: Site of Crownthorpe Romano-Celtic temple (Monument)

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