Record Details

NHER Number:5391
Type of record:Monument
Name:Shotesham St Mary deserted medieval village and post medieval park and gardens

Summary

This is the site of the deserted medieval village of Shotesham St Mary and early post medieval parkland and gardens associated with Old Hall Farmhouse (NHER 58705). The area is centred on the moated remains of the Old Hall. The remaining south wing of this manor house is believed to have been constructed in the 1580’s, but the majority of the present building was not constructed until the 17th or 18th century (see NHER 58705). 17th and 18th century maps depict the hall and moat within a circular park divided into enclosures. Landscape features associated with this parkland survive as earthworks to the north of the moated enclosure, while to the south and west a hollow way, likely a medieval road, and the remains of a possible medieval toft have been identified.
The area has been subject to extensive metal-detecting and fieldwalking between 1968 and 2006. This work has recovered materials dating from the prehistoric to post medieval period and finds include fossil shells, Mesolithic/Neolithic flints, Roman coins, a fragment of an 8th/9th century Irish enamelled mount, and other medieval and post medieval metal objects.

Images

  • The ruins of St Martin's Church, Shotesham.  © Norfolk County Council

Location

Grid Reference:TM 2367 9872
Map Sheet:TM29NW
Parish:SHOTESHAM, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

Remains of St Martin's Church previously recorded under this number are now recorded under NHER 58704.
Old Hall Farmhouse previously recorded under this number, is now recorded under NHER 58705.
Old Hall Barns previously recorded under this number are now recorded under NHER 58706.

The parish of Shotesham has a complex history. It has been divided into two parts known as High Shotesham and Low Shotesham at least since the time of Domesday. High Shotesham is located on the eastern side of the valley and is the site of the present day village, centred around All Saints Church (NHER 5390). Low Shotesham is located on the western side of the valley and had three churches: St Botolph’s (NHER 9632) in the northeast, St Mary’s (NHER 9631) further west, and St Martin’s (NHER 58704) in the south. Both St Boltophs and St Martin’s appear to have had pre-conquest origins, while the Church of St Mary existed only as a rectory at the time of Domesday (S2).

The parish of St Boltoph was consolidated with St Mary in 1311 -12, and it has been suggested that the greater part of the population was centred around St Mary’s by this time (S2). The manor house associated with Low Shotesham is set within a circular moat and is believed to have been constructed in the 1580’s (see NHER 58705), by which time the settlement of Shotesham as a whole appears to have been in decline (S2, S6), but it is likely that the settlement was not completely deserted until the 18th century (S6).

Earthworks to the north of the moated site were thought at one time to be related to the deserted medieval village of Shotesham St Mary (S2), but the majority of these are likely related to post medieval park and gardens associated with the hall (S4). To the south of the moated site a hollow way has been identified which is believed to be a medieval street as well as the remains of a possible toft (S2, S4).
Information from (S2), (S4) and (S6).
Earthworks are visible in aerial photographs (S7) and (S8).
H. Hamilton (HES), 05 March 2013.

1664. Casual find.
Fossil shells were found while digging a well on the land of the D'Oyley family, who owned Shotesham Hall. This find was the inspiration for Mercurius Centralis, one of the first attempts at modern geology/archaeological theory.
E. Rose (NLA), 30 November 2004.

Pre-1968. Casual observation.
Several finds have been reported by farmworkers sometime prior to 1968.
A cobbled surface was noted in the field known as Dovehouse Close (Field 68 on S1) during ploughing. The surface ran northwards from a point near the hedge between the two fields and continued along the present field boundary of Dovehouse Plantation (Field 67 on S1).
A possible brick building was identified in OS field 154, to the west of the cobbled side street.
Foundations of unknown date were revealed by farm workers while repairing the southernmost boundary of the field northeast of the hall (Field 74 on S1).
Areas of red soil, possibly hearths, were noted by farm workers while ploughing the field to the south of the Hall and barns.
Farm workers reported encountering cobbled streets within the fields to the east of St Mary’s Church and St. Martin’s Church, and a large area of brick (approximately 18m by 6m) was noted in the field east of St Mary’s Church.
Information from (S2).
H. Hamilton (HES), 04 March 2013.

1968? - January 1969. Earthwork survey and possible trial trenching.
The moat from the original manor house survives and is cut by entrances in three places. The current west entrance is a slightly raised causeway from the field to the west (Field 70, Orchards on S1). A ditch with a low bank was identified in the eastern side of Field 69 (S1), Garden Meadow, starting just beyond the causeway and continuing south. It is suggested that this may have been the outer limits of the manor house grounds before enclosure. To the north and east of the moat, a series of ditches were identified as the remains of possible streets and tofts. To the south of the hall, another large sunken street was identified running from a pond in the west to the southeast corner of the field, where it likely continued east to St Martin’s Church (NHER 58704) and possibly northwest to Shotesham Mill. A possible house platform was identified on the southern edge of this street just to the east of the pond.
Trial trenching was suggested for investigating the earthworks to the north of the moat, but no details were provided.
See (S2) for further details.
H. Hamilton (HES), 04 March 2013.

April 1983. Casual observation.
A lava quern and a flint flake were recovered by the Moated Sites Research Group opposite the ruins of St Martin’s church (NHER 58704).
NCM 298.984.
A. Rogerson (NLA), January 1984.

September 1983. Metal-detecting.
16th century bronze buckle decorated with black laquer.
Also two incomplete buckles.
Identified by S. Margeson.

October 1983. Metal-detecting and fieldwalking.
Context 4: Long cross penny of Henry III minted Renaud of London, North class 5 (g-i) c.1258 or 1260 to 1272. Rev: RENAVD ON LVN.
Context 5: Flint core, Neolithic or Mesolithic.
Context 7: Medieval bronze ring with circular setting for a stone.
Context 10: Roman bronze coin, 3rd or 4th century AD.
Context 11: Lead dice, possibly Roman.
Context 13: 16th century bronze double-looped buckle
Context 14: Post-medieval gilt bronze chape
Context 15: Base from a13th-14th century bronze censer.
Context 16: Cast bronze 10th century brooch.
Context 17: 13th or 14th century bronze annular brooch, German post-medieval jetton.
Metal objects identified by S. Margeson.
Roman objects identified by T. Gregory.
Flint objects identified by J. Wymer, November 1983.

November 1983. Metal-detecting.
Context 6: Post-medieval bronze decorated buckle.
Context 7: Neolithic worked flint flakes. Cut long-cross farthing of Henry III minted at Wilton 1248-59 (North class 3).
Context 8: Cut short-cross halfpenny of Henry II, possibly north class I (1180-89).
Context 9: Medieval bronze finger ring with plain oval bezel.
Context 15: Medieval bronze belt plate (silvered or tinned). Fragment of Henry VIII penny, London mint, HENRIC DG AGL.
Context 16: Bronze buckle, possibly 16th century.
Context 17: Early medieval bronze mount, possibly from a casket.
Context 18: Small 16th or 17th century stud with head in the form of a star of David.
Metal objects identified by S. Margeson.
Flint objects identified by J. Wymer

1984. Field Observation by A. Rogerson and the Moated Sites Research Group.
The north-east sector of the earthworks remain visible. These earthworks are likely the remains of tofts and roads.
E. Rose (NLA), 21 September 1984.

June 1984. Metal-detecting on top of foundations.
Cut halfpenny short-cross, possibly Henry III, pre-1247.
S. Margeson, 13 July 1984.

Before July 1984. Metal-detecting.
Context 20: 16th century sheet metal rumbler bell with flint pea inside.
Context 21: Post-medieval bronze cast compass with moulded knob.
Context 22: 15th-early 16th century bronze book clasp.
W. Milligan, 27 September 1984.

October 1984. Metal-detecting.
Context 23: Hammered long-cross penny of Edward III. London mint, 1351-61.
Context 15: Two fragments of silver cut farthing, pre Edward I.
Context 24: Bronze sheet hooked casket or belt fitting, possibly medieval.
Context 25: Silver tiny hooked decorated tag, Late Saxon.
Context 26: Medieval gilt bronze animal pendant, possibly in the form of a lamb.
Photos NCM.
W. Milligan, 24 October 1984.

1992 or before. Metal-detecting.
Lead papal bulla of John XXII 1316-1334.
Polaroid at NCM.
J. Davies, 17 December 1992.

September 1992. Fieldwalking and metal-detecting.
Roman coins and Roman (1 sherd Samian, 6 sherds greyware), Late Saxon (23 sherds), medieval (9 sherds), and post medieval (1 sherd) pottery.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 30 September 1992.

March – April 1993. Metal-detecting.
Late Saxon strap end.
See photograph (S3).
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 June 1993.

1996. Metal-detecting.
Medieval harness pendant, post medieval coins.
Drawn by S. Ashley.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 31 January 1997.

1996. Metal-detecting.
Medieval horse harness pendant, medieval coin, post medieval (17th century) bridle mount, and James I square coin weight (1603-25).
H. Geake, 20 December 1996.

October 1997 or earlier. Metal-detecting.
Roman coin, foot from a 1st century Langton Down type brooch. Middle Saxon coin brooch, medieval horse harness pendant, late medieval or early post medieval end-cap from a knife handle, and early post medieval belt-mount.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 July 1999.

November 1997. Metal-detecting.
Fragment of an 8th to 9th century mount, possibly from a shrine. Possibly of Irish origin.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 July 1999.

21 September 1999. Field observation.
Moat broad and water filled with minimal weed or dead wood. Fields containing earthworks are under good grass cover and are grazed by sheep. Those to the west are more defined, with a good hollow way and possible platforms. Earlier survey to be updated.
H. Paterson (NLA), 29 September 1999.

November 1999. Earthwork survey at 1:1000.
A series of linear features and incomplete enclosures was identified to the north of the moated enclosure. It had been previously suggested that these are the remains of the deserted medieval village, but several of the features are depicted on an estate map of 1650 (S9) and some may be early park boundaries. Some slight earthworks immediately east of the moat may be the remains of buildings shown within an outer court on the estate map, and a small building abutting St Mary’s churchyard was identified as a dovecote.
The hollow way previously identified to the south of the moat was likely a medieval street, and an indication of an abutting toft was confirmed. This is the only feature that is likely to be associated with any deserted medieval village earthworks.
See (S4) for further details.
See (S5) for short report and (S6) for longer summary.
H. Hamilton (HES), 04 March 2013.

April/May 2006. Metal detecting.
Four medieval and five post medieval coins.
Middle Saxon/Late Saxon, medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA) 10 June 2006.

Monument Types

  • BUILDING? (Unknown date)
  • DESERTED SETTLEMENT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HEARTH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • MOAT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • ROAD (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TOFT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PARK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • FLAKE (Unknown date)
  • MOLLUSCA REMAINS (Undated)
  • QUERN (Undated)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • DIE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Middle Saxon - 651 AD to 850 AD)
  • HOOKED TAG (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 651 AD to 1065 AD)
  • MOUNT (Middle Saxon to Late Saxon - 700 AD to 899 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • DRESS COMPONENT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • POT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • BOX (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BROOCH (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BULL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CENSER (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINGER RING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • PENDANT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Medieval - 1400 AD to 1539 AD)
  • KNIFE (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1400 AD to 1699 AD)
  • BELL (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1500 AD to 1599 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • CASKET? (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COMPASS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KNIFE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MOUNT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • ROWEL SPUR (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STUD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SPOON (Post Medieval - 1700 AD to 1799 AD)

Protected Status

  • SHINE

Sources and further reading

---Monograph: Ashley, S.. 2002. Medieval Armorial Horse Furniture in Norfolk.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 101.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Map: NRO. 1842. Shotesham Tithe Award.
<S2>Article in serial: Smith, D.. 1969. A Preliminary Report on the Deserted Medieval Village of Shotesham St Mary, Henstead Hundred, in the County of Norfolk, England.. Gwynedd Journal. pp 170-85.
<S3>Photograph: [unknown]. 1993. MJH 9-11. Late Saxon strap end from Shotesham St Mary DMV..
<S4>Unpublished document: Cushion, B.. 1999. Shotesham Old Hall, SMR 5391. Earthwork Survey..
<S5>Article in serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 2000. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1999. Norfolk Archaeology. XLIII Pt III pp 521-543. p 536.
<S6>Monograph: Cushion, B. and Davison, A.. 2003. Earthworks of Norfolk.. East Anglian Archaeology. Vol 104. p 67.
<S7>Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1996. TG 2398AP - AR.
<S8>Aerial Photograph: TM2398 A-G,K-M,Q-W,X,Y,Z-AN.
<S9>Map: London, F. and Hunt, J. 1650. Map of easterly part of Shotesham St Mary's, St Martin's and All Saints being estate of Sir William D'Oyley. coloured. 13in. to 1 mile approx..

Related records

MNO5819Related to: Remains of Church of St. Martin SHOTESHAM ST. MARY (Revoked)

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