Record Details

NHER Number:5316
Type of record:Monument
Name:Hockwold Roman settlement and multi-period finds

Summary

A large Roman rural settlement, excavated in the 1960s before the construction of the cut-off channel from Denver to Hockwold cum Wilton. A large amount of Roman pottery, coins, metal finds and building material was recovered from the site. The settlement is part of a dense network of Roman occupation along the edge of the Fens. Evidence for pre-Iron Age activity was also recovered, including Mesolithic and later prehistoric worked flints and sherds of Early Neolithic, Beaker and Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age pottery.
Neolithic flints and pottery, a Late Bronze Age hoard, a gold Iron Age coin, an Early Saxon girdle hanger and a medieval weight have been found by metal detecting.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TL 70 88
Map Sheet:TL78NW
Parish:HOCKWOLD CUM WILTON, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1931 to 1932.
Casual finds Roman sherds.

1934.
Scatter of Roman building material.

1945.
Cropmarks of Roman settlement noted.

1954. Stray Find.
Several worked flints found by F. Curtis (Curtis Field 64). Recorded in Curtis' catalogue as;
1 prehistoric "arrowhead", 1 "unfinished arrowhead", 1 "borer", 1 "ovate knife", 1 "knife" and 1 "blunt back".
These finds are listed in (S3) but had not been seen. The "borer" is however probably an object from Curtis' Field 64 that was identified by R. Jacobi as a potentially Mesolithic awl. This piece is described in (S6).
P. Watkins (HES), 22 September 2014.

1955. Casual find.
Neolithic stone axe.

1957. Stray Find.
Found by F. Curtis (Curtis Field 64):
1 prehistoric flint knife.
Seen by F. Healy (NAU) and listed in (S3) as a small blade. Listed in Curtis' catalogue as a Mesolithic microlithic.
P. Watkins (HES), 22 September 2014.

1958. Casual find.
Roman sherds.

1959.
Roman sherds and tesserae and Neolithic stone axe.

1961 to 1962.
Excavations of Roman settlement identified, probably wrongly, as Camboritum.

These excavations also revealed evidence for pre-Iron Age activity, including a significant assemblage of worked flints that was re-examined by F. Healy (NAU) in the 1980s. At 'Site 7088' (Contexts 2, 5 and 6) a small pit was identified containing a late style Beaker. This pit was was overlain by a considerable depth of sterile sand that contained at least one sherd of Beaker pottery. A number of worked flints were also identified at this site. This assemblage included a possible Mesolithic component comprising a petit tranchet arrowhead, a regular blade core and six blades. Flint of later prehistoric or uncertain date included 1 core, 30 flakes, 3 scrapers, 1 serrated pieces and 2 misc. retouched pieces.

At 'Site 7088' the excavation of two trenches within a natural hollow in the northern part of the site revealed various irregular features described as pits and post-holes, one of them containing numerous fragmentary wooden stakes. These features contained and were surrounded by an extensive spread of what was described as 'Secondary Neolithic/Beaker' pottery. Healy reidentified a proportion of this material as Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Age, although she notes in (S3) that sherds of Early Neolithic bowl, Beaker and other Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age pottery are also present. A number of probable Mesolithic worked flints were also recovered at this site including 1 microlith (?rod fragment) and 1 regular blade core. A number of the blades and 2 end scrapers were also much more heavily corticated than the remainder of the assemblage and are also probably of Mesolithic date. Other notable worked flints from this site included 4 Neolithic axehead fragments (2 ground, 2 flaked) and 1 Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age barbed and tanged arrowhead. The less diagnostic pieces included 28 cores, 8 core fragments, 315 flakes, 34 blades (total including the possible Mesolithic pieces), 31 fragments of irregular waste, 27 scrapers, 1 borer, 2 knives, 1 notched flake, 2 denticulates, 1 serrated piece and 9 misc. retouched pieces.
Information from (S3).
P. Watkins (HES), 9 November 2013.

1964. Casual find.
Leaf arrowhead.

1960 to 1970.
Neolithic flint and pottery found.

1974. Found with metal detecting.
Flat or flanged axe (S2).

1977. Found with metal detecting.
Roman coins, Late Bronze Age hoard.

1997. Metal detecting find.
Roman coin.

1998. Metal detecting find.
Iron Age, Roman coins and metalwork.

See details, site plans, correspondence and press cuttings in file.
E. Rose (NLA) 30 October 1998.

Late 1998 to Early 1999. Metal detecting.
Middle Bronze Age Picardy-type pin (S4).
?Medieval trade weight, see list in file.
Bronze Age awl (S5).
Late Iron Age penannular brooch and Early Saxon incomplete girdle hanger. See list in file.
K. Hinds (NLA) 22 Febraury 2000.i

Monument Types

  • CREMATION (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • SETTLEMENT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • RING DITCH (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age - 1000 BC to 401 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BUILDING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FARMSTEAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FIELD SYSTEM (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • INHUMATION (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Undated)
  • ARROWHEAD (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • BORER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DEBITAGE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • DENTICULATE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • HUMAN REMAINS (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • KNIFE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • KNIFE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • NOTCHED FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SERRATED IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • SERRATED IMPLEMENT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • AWL (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • BLADE CORE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • END SCRAPER (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • MICROLITH (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • TRANSVERSE ARROWHEAD (Mesolithic - 10000 BC? to 4001 BC?)
  • AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • PLANO CONVEX KNIFE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POLISHED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Early Neolithic - 4000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • POT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRANSVERSE ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • POT (Late Neolithic to Early Bronze Age - 3000 BC to 1501 BC)
  • AWL (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • CHISEL (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • FLANGED AXEHEAD (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • FLAT AXEHEAD (Early Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 1501 BC)
  • PIN (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • BARBED AND TANGED ARROWHEAD (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • POT (Beaker - 2300 BC to 1700 BC)
  • GOUGE (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • HOARD (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • KNIFE (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • POT (Late Bronze Age to Early Iron Age - 1000 BC to 401 BC)
  • PUNCH (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • SOCKETED AXEHEAD (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • SPEAR (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • COIN (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ARCHITECTURAL FRAGMENT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • GEMSTONE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PALETTE (COSMETIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROOF TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TESSERA (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • TILE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • GIRDLE HANGER (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BROOCH (Late Saxon - 851 AD to 1065 AD)
  • WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)

Protected Status

  • Higher Level Stewardship

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: RAF. RAF CPE-UK 1952 4214, St. Joseph; OS 437.76.127.
---Aerial Photograph: CUCAP. 1961. TL 7087L-T; TL 7088A; TL 6988R.
---Newspaper Article: 1960. Eastern Daily Press. 19 January.
---Newspaper Article: The Times. 1961. 18 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1961. Eastern Daily Press. 20 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1961. Eastern Daily Press. 1 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1961. Eastern Daily Press. 22 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1962. Eastern Daily Press. 3 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1960. Eastern Daily Press. 14 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1961. Eastern Daily Press. 30 July.
---Newspaper Article: 1961. Eastern Daily Press. 28 August.
---Publication: 1961. Pocket Review. July.
---Unpublished Document: Salway, P.. 1961. Excavations at Camboritum, 1961: A Preliminary Note.
---Newspaper Article: The Listener. 1961. 28 December.
---Correspondence: Vairous. 1961 to 1963. Letters.
---Newspaper Article: 1961. Eastern Daily Press. 20 July.
---Thesis: Garrow, D.. 2006. Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia. during the Neolithic and Early Pits, Settlement and Deposition during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age in East Anglia.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Neolithic. Hockwold cum Wilton.
---Archive: Clarke, R. R. and NCM Staff. 1933-1973. Norwich Castle Museum Record Card - Roman. Hockwold Cum Wilton [5].
---Article in Serial: 1963. Archaeological Discoveries in Norfolk, 1961. Norfolk Research Committee Bulletin. Series 1 No 14 (for 1961 and 1962) pp 1-3. p 2.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
---Slide: Various. Slide.
<S1>Article in Serial: Salway, P.. 1967. Excavations at Hockwold cum wilton 1961 to 622.. Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Vol LX, pp 39-80.
<S2>Illustration: Gregory, T.. 1974. Drawing of a Bronze Age flat or flanged axe.. Card. 1:1.
<S3>Monograph: Healy, F. 1996. The Fenland Project, Number 11: The Wissey Embayment: Evidence for pre-Iron Age Occupation. East Anglian Archaeology. No 78. Microfiche.
<S4>Illustration: Holness, A.. 1999. Drawing of a Middle Bronze Age Picardy-type pin.. Card. 1:1.
<S5>Illustration: Holness, A.. 1999. Drawing of a Bronze Age awl.. Card. 1:1.
<S6>Archive: R. Jacobi. -. Jacobi Archive. 10187.

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