Record Details

NHER Number:34086
Type of record:Monument
Name:Multi-period finds and features

Summary

A number of possible archaeological features were identified by a geophysical survey in advance of mineral extraction. When excavated by the NAU in 1998 to 1999 these features were found to be post medieval and undated ditches. Fieldwalking recovered a single fragment of Roman pottery, and medieval and post medieval finds. A concentration of medieval pottery recovered during a fieldwalking survey carried out by APS in 2003 in advance of mineral extraction suggests that this is the site of a small medieval settlement. Prehistoric flints, Roman pottery, and medieval and post medieval pottery and other finds were also recovered. Excavation in 2007 revealed evidence for domestic and industrial activity dating from the late Bronze Age to the late Iron Age and Roman periods.

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TF 6810 1805
Map Sheet:TF61NE
Parish:ASHWICKEN, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK
LEZIATE, WEST NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

1958.
Slag deposits identified, close to excavated Roman iron-working site (NHER 3382).
Previously recorded under NHER 3382.

October 1998. Geophysical Survey.
Magnetometry survey of proposed aggregate extraction area.
Scanning revealed a low level of background magnetic variation. A number of anomalies of potential interest were identified and targeted by detailed gradiometery. Detailed survey revealed one area of distinct archaeological potential that may relate to features associated with iron-smelting and/or processing. A number of linear trends and pit type anomalies have also been identified that may be of archaeological interest, although given the weak nature of these responses any archaeological interpretation is tentative.
See report (S1) for further details.
E. Rose (NLA) 18 January 1999 and M. Dennis (NLA), 20 September 2007.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 15 September 2015.

December 1998. Systematic Fieldwalking and Metal-detecting Survey
Field survey of proposed aggregate extraction area.
Artefacts collected consisted mostly of clay tobacco pipe and pottery sherds of 19th- and 20th-century date. A single sherd of Roman pottery was recovered, along with 5 pieces of iron slag. Metal detector finds included a copper alloy harness mount and a copper alloy nail. No marked concentrations of finds were noted.
See report (S2) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S3).
Previously partially recorded under NHER 3382.
Finds in NCM and KLM.
E. Rose (NLA) 18 January 1999 and M. Dennis (NLA), 20 September 2007.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 15 September 2015.

January 1999. Trial Trenching.
Evaluation of proposed aggregate extraction area.
The evaluation trenches revealed three archaeological features, all of them ditches. Two were post medieval and the third was undateable.
See report (S2) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S3).
Previously partially recorded under NHER 3382.
Finds in NCM and KLM.
E. Rose (NLA) 18 January 1999 and M. Dennis (NLA), 20 September 2007.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 15 September 2015.

April 2003. Systematic Fieldwalking and Metal-detecting Survey.
Second field survey of proposed aggregate extraction area.
Artefact densities were generally low, although one scatter of medieval pottery (64 sherds) was identified at the extreme western end of this site. This may indicate the position of a small, isolated settlement. Little medieval material was recovered in the eastern part of the site. A notable number of slag fragments were also found (many of which were smelting slag), the majority recovered in the central southern part of the site. The smelting slag was not itself closely datable, although a Roman date is likely for much of this assemblage, given the proximity to a known iron-working site of this date (NHER 3382). although one of the smithing slag fragments was though to be medieval in date.

This other finds recovered included:
1 undatable prehistoric retouched flint nodule.
1 Mesolithic/Early Neolithic heavily patinated blade core.
2 ?Neolithic worked flints, including 1 retouched flake and 1 core fragment.
1 Neolithic/Bronze Age burnt scraper.
2 ?Bronze Age worked flints, including 1 utilised flake and 1 retouched flake.
3 Roman pottery sherds (1 Samian, 2 greyware).
1 medieval lead biconical spindle whorl.
1 ?post-medieval ?gunflint.
6 post-medieval metal objects, including 1 purse frame, 1 ?belt strap end, 1 iron spike, 1 stamped disc, 1 thimble and 1 iron file.
See report (S4) in file for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S5).
Previously recorded under NHER 38183.
J. Allen (NLA), 17 October 2003. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 15 September 2015.

February 2007. Strip Map and Sample Excavation.
Evidence for domestic and industrial activity dating from the late Bronze Age to the late Iron Age and Roman periods was recovered during archaeological monitoring. A series of late Bronze Age pits contained Bronze Age post-Deverel-Rimbury plain wares probably from a nearby settlement. Evidence of iron smelting was also recovered and two, possibly three, structures interpreted as furnace bases were revealed and the occurrence of slag in nearby pits. The radiocarbon date from organic material inclusions within the slag gave a date of between 4th and 3rd century BC.
See assessment report (S6) for further details. The results of this work are also summarised in (S7). Final report awaited.
Previously recorded under NHER 38183.
S. Howard (NLA), 3 December 2009. Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 15 September 2015.

Monument Types

  • DITCH (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 1000000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Bronze Age - 2350 BC to 701 BC)
  • PIT (Late Bronze Age - 1000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FURNACE? (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • IRON WORKING SITE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • PIT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • POST HOLE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • RECTILINEAR ENCLOSURE (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • SHRINE? (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • ENCLOSURE (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • PIT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SETTLEMENT? (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • DITCH (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Unknown date)
  • ANIMAL REMAINS (Unknown date)
  • BURNT FLINT (Unknown date)
  • DAUB (Unknown date)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Unknown date)
  • NAIL (Unknown date)
  • SLAG (Unknown date)
  • WHETSTONE (Unknown date)
  • BLADE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • LITHIC IMPLEMENT (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • POT BOILER (Lower Palaeolithic to Late Iron Age - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • CORE (Early Mesolithic to Late Neolithic - 10000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC? to 2351 BC?)
  • SCRAPER (TOOL) (Early Neolithic to Late Bronze Age - 4000 BC to 701 BC)
  • FLAKE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC? to 701 BC?)
  • RETOUCHED FLAKE (Bronze Age - 2350 BC? to 701 BC?)
  • METAL WORKING DEBRIS (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • NAIL (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • SLAG (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • BRICK (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • POT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SLAG (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • SPINDLE WHORL (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • TILE (Medieval to 19th Century - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOTTLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BRICK (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GUNFLINT? (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • POT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • PURSE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • RIVET (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SCISSORS (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • STUD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • THIMBLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TILE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Slide: Various. Slide.
<S1>Unpublished Contractor Report: [Unknown]. 1998. Geophysical Survey Report. Wicken Quarry, Norfolk. GSB Prospection. 98/121.
<S2>Unpublished Contractor Report: Percival, S. 1999. Report on an Archaeological Evaluation at Wicken Quarry, Ashwicken, Leziate. Norfolk Archaeological Unit. 366.
<S3>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. (eds). 1999. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 1998. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIII Pt II pp 369-387. p 377.
<S4>Unpublished Contractor Report: Cope-Faulkner, P. 2003. Fieldwalking on land at Holt House Farm, Wicken, Leziate, Norfolk. Archaeological Project Services. 144/03.
<S5>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Penn, K. 2004. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk 2003. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLIV Pt III pp 573-588. p 580.
<S6>Unpublished Contractor Report: Cope-Faulkner, P. and Failes, A. 2010. Assessment of the Archaeological Remains and an Updated Project Design for Excavation at Holt House Farm, Wicken, Norfolk. Archaeological Project Services. 19/10.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. and Hoggett, R. (eds). 2008. Excavations and Surveys in Norfolk in 2007. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLV Pt III pp 441-452. p 446.

Related records

3382Related to: Roman iron smelting and smithing site, Wicken Quarry (Monument)

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