Record Details

NHER Number:23825
Type of record:Monument
Name:Possible Roman remains and multi-period finds

Summary

Fieldwalking and metal detecting between 1987 and 2011 recovered a wide range of objects, including Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Mesolithic/Early Neolithic, Neolithic and post-medieval worked flints; Iron Age, Roman and medieval pottery sherds; a post-medieval pipe clay wig curler; Roman, medieval and post-medieval coins and a number of other metal objects. The metal finds include a Roman cosmetic palette and brooches; an Early Saxon brooch; medieval to post-medieval dress accessories; a medieval/post-medieval coin weight and possible chafing dish fragment and a post-medieval sword chape, book clasp, key and crotal bell.

The worked flint assemblage is particularly notable due to the number of Palaeolithic objects recovered, including two broken handaxes. This field lies close to a former gravel pit and is a possible source of some of the unprovenanced Palaeolithic finds from Wymondham that are present in at least two museum collections.

Fieldwalking has also identified a spread of large flints and dark soil in the western half of the field, close to the line of a probable Roman road (NHER 19725).

Images - none

Location

Grid Reference:TG 09 02
Map Sheet:TG00SE
Parish:WYMONDHAM, SOUTH NORFOLK, NORFOLK

Full description

June 1987. Fieldwalking.
Found by [1] at Context 1 (centred TG 0990 0296):
Neolithic worked flint waste.
Possible post-medieval gunflint waste.
1 Iron Age pottery sherd.
Finds identified by J. J. Wymer (NAU) and T. Gregory (NAU). A spread of larger flints and dark earth was also observed at this location - potentially associated with the nearby Roman road (NHER 19725).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 February 2014.

February 1988. Fieldwalking.
Found by [1] at Context 1:
3 ?Palaeolithic flint flakes. Stained and slightly rolled.
Identified by J. J. Wymer (NAU), February 1988.
These finds are listed in (S1) and (S2), although no additional information is given.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 February 2014.

1988. Fieldwalking and metal-detecting. Site extented to east.
Finds recovered in several locations by [2]. Found at Context 2 (area to east of Context 1):
4 undatable prehistoric flint flakes.
4 Palaeolithic primary flint flakes.
10 ?Palaeolithic flint flakes.
1 Mesolithic/Early Neolithic small flint axehead.
13 Roman coins and 1 pottery sherd (decorated greyware).
1 medieval coin (soldino) and 2 buckles.
1 medieval/post-medieval ribbed strip.
1 post-medieval buckle, open-ended socket, decorated mount/finial, button and pipe clay wig-curler fragment.

Found at Context 3 (TG 0990 0293):
1 Roman trumpet brooch. See NCM polaroid. Identified by D. Mackreth.

Found at Context 4 (TG 1000 0306):
1 Neolithic flint axehead (possibly a roughout).

Found at Context 5 (TG 1005 0308):
1 Mesolithic flint blade.

Found at Context 6 (TG 0983 0294):
1 Roman copper alloy cosmetic palette. Identified by R. Jackson (BM). See NCM polaroid.

Found at Context 7 (TG 0988 0289):
1 Palaeolithic flint handaxe fragment. See drawing (S3).

Flints identified by J. J. Wymer (NAU). See lists in file. These discoveries were reported in (S2). The Palaeolithic objects are also listed in (S1) and (S2), although no additional information is given.
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 February 2014.

1990. Fieldwalking.
Found by [2] at Context 8 (TG 0988 0289):
1 Neolithic small flint triangular arrowhead with opposed notches.
Identified by J. J. Wymer (NAU).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 February 2014.

1992. Metal-detecting.
Found by [2] at Context 1:
1 Palaeolithic flint handaxe, broken in antiquity. Identified by P. Robins (NCM). See drawing (S5). This object is also listed in (S1) and (S2), although no additional information is given.
1 ?Roman copper alloy animal head mount. See NCM polaroid and drawing (S6).

Found by [2] at Context 4:
1 Early Saxon brooch, found in two pieces. See drawing (S6)

See lists in file. These discoveries were reported in (S7).
Amended by P. Watkins (HES), 20 February 2014.

The field is crossed by a broad east to west linear pale mark which is probably the mark of Roman road (NHER 19725; D. Edwards, E. Rose, D. Gurney). However at the east end there is another mark of two double parallel ditches approaching this at an angle, presumably joining it outside the site to the east.
E. Rose, 1 February 1994.

November/December 2001. Metal detecting.
Roman coin.
Roman brooch.
Post medieval button.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 9 February 2002.

January/February 2002. Metal detecting.
Roman coin.
Medieval/Post medieval coin weight.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 4 March 2002.

August 2002. Metal detecting.
Roman coin.
Post medieval key.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 9 October 2002.

August 2004. Metal detecting.
Post medieval crotal bell.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 7 October 2004.

October 2004. Metal detecting.
One medieval and one post medieval (James I Britain crown) coin.
Post medieval book clasp.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 8 December 2004.

December 2005. Metal detecting.
One post medieval token.
See list in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 10 January 2006.

26 March and 9 April 2006. Metal detecting.
Two Roman and one medieval coin.
Roman brooch.
Medieval/post medieval and post medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 5 May 2006.

15 April 2006. Metal detecting.
17th century buckle.
See description in file.
A. Rogerson (NLA), 10 June 2006.

31 August 2009. Metal detecting.
Roman brooch, medieval pottery sherd and post-medieval bell, belt or harness mount.
See list in file,
A. Rogerson, (NLA), 12 October 2009.

July 2011. Norfolk NMP.
The two parallel ditches described above are presumed to be those visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs, such as (S8), between TG 1009 0301 and TG 1012 0302. These in fact fall outside the existing limits of the site, but they in any case almost certainly mark the line of a modern drainage ditch depicted on historic maps, such as (S9). They are therefore of no archaeological significance. As also described above, the cropmark of the Roman road to their north is recorded as part of NHER 19725.
S. Tremlett (NMP), 13 July 2011.

11 September 2010. Metal-detecting.
One Roman and one post-medieval coin.
See lists in file.
A. Marsden (HES), 20 September 2011.

20 & 22 October 2011. Metal-detecting.
One Roman coin, medieval & post-medieval metal objects.
See lists in file.
A. Rogerson (HES), 13 December 2011.

The number of Palaeolithic objects from this site is notable and, as noted in (S7), this location (or at least this general area) is one of the possible sources of the unprovenanced Palaeolithic finds from Wymondham held by the British Museum and the Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology (see NHER 9425 for further details). A gravel pit is shown on the 1st Edition O.S map in the field immediately to the south of this site (TG 1000 0277).
P. Watkins (HES), 20 February 2014.

Monument Types

  • ROAD (Unknown date)
  • FINDSPOT (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FINDSPOT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • ROAD (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FINDSPOT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • LITHIC WORKING SITE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)

Associated Finds

  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC? to 40001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC? to 40001 BC?)
  • FLAKE (Prehistoric - 500000 BC to 42 AD)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • HANDAXE (Lower Palaeolithic to Middle Palaeolithic - 500000 BC to 40001 BC)
  • BLADE (Mesolithic - 10000 BC to 4001 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Early Mesolithic to Early Neolithic - 10000 BC to 3001 BC)
  • FLAKE (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • FLAKED AXEHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • TRIANGULAR ARROWHEAD (Neolithic - 4000 BC to 2351 BC)
  • POT (Iron Age - 800 BC to 42 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • BROOCH (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • MOUNT (Roman - 43 AD? to 409 AD?)
  • PALETTE (COSMETIC) (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • POT (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • STRAP FITTING (Roman - 43 AD to 409 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 271 AD to 274 AD)
  • COIN (Roman - 320 AD? to 321 AD)
  • BROOCH (Early Saxon - 411 AD to 650 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • BUTTON (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • CHAFING DISH (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • COIN WEIGHT (Medieval - 1066 AD to 1539 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Medieval to Post Medieval - 1066 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BOOK FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUCKLE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • BUTTON (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN WEIGHT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FERRULE (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • FURNITURE FITTING (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • GUNFLINT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • HARNESS MOUNT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • KEY (LOCKING) (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • MOUNT? (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SCABBARD (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • SWORD BELT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • TOKEN (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • UNIDENTIFIED OBJECT (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • WIG CURLER (Post Medieval - 1540 AD to 1900 AD)
  • COIN (Post Medieval - 1582 AD? to 1603 AD)

Protected Status - none

Sources and further reading

---Aerial Photograph: TG 0903 AA; TG 1003 A-B.
---Archive: NAU Staff. 1974-1988. Norfolk Archaeological Index Primary Record Card.
---Secondary File: Secondary file.
<S1>Unpublished Document: Wessex Archaeology. 1997. The English Rivers Palaeolithic Project. Regions 8 (East Anglian Rivers) and 11 (Trent Drainage). W&Y-3, No.2.
<S2>Website: TERPS online database. Site 22599.
<S3>Illustration: Wymer, J. 1988. Drawing of a fragmentary Palaeolithic flint handaxe from Wymondham. Paper. 1:1.
<S4>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. 1990. Archaeological Finds in Norfolk 1989. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLI Pt I pp 96-106. p 98.
<S5>Illustration: Robins, P. 1993. Drawing of a fragmentary Palaeolithic flint handaxe from Wymondham. Paper. 1:1.
<S6>Illustration: Penn, K.. 1992. Drawing of an Early Saxon cruciform brooch.. Film. 2:1.
<S7>Article in Serial: Gurney, D. (ed.). 1994. Archaeological Finds in Norfolk 1993. Norfolk Archaeology. Vol XLII Pt I pp 104-115. p 104.
<S8>Oblique Aerial Photograph: Edwards, D.A. (NLA). 1989. NHER TG 0903Z-AA (NLA 237/DMC4-5) 12-JUL-1989.
<S9>Map: Ordnance Survey. 1902-7. Ordnance Survey second edition 25 inch (1902-7) map. 25" to 1'.

Related records - none

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